Search Health Studies

Whole Grains Linked with Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

In a large study of nearly 200,000 US adults, those eating whole grains most frequently had a 29% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes across the approximately 30-year study period than those rarely or never eating whole grains, even after adjusting for other lifestyle factors. When looking at specific whole grain foods, common foods like whole grain breakfast cereal, oatmeal, whole grain bread, and brown rice were all linked with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The exception was popcorn, which was linked with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes when eaten more than once per day, perhaps due to its association with butter sauces or sugary flavorings.
BMJ. 2020 Jul 8;370:m2206. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2206. (Hu Y et al.)

Australians Recognize Whole Grains as Healthy, But Still Falling Short on Recommendations

To better understand why people are or are not eating whole grains, researchers surveyed 735 Australian (mostly female) adults about their eating habits and their understanding of whole grains. The scientists found that more than three-quarters of the participants were not eating enough whole grains, less than half of the participants correctly identified whole grains, and only 9% correctly identified how many servings of whole grains are recommended for their age and gender. However, the majority of the participants understood that whole grains do have health benefits, and they reported education, cost, and taste as the main factors that contribute to their choice of whole gains. 
Nutrients. 2020 July 22, 12(8), 2170; doi: 10.3390/nu12082170 (Foster S et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Healthier Gut Microbiome in Aging

Some of the worlds healthiest, longest lived people follow a Mediterranean diet, so researchers wonder about the mechanism behind its link with healthy aging. In this study, researchers analyzed the gut microbiome of 612 older European adults before starting a Mediterranean diet, and then after 1 year of following a Mediterranean diet. Those who followed the Mediterranean diet most closely had significant differences in their gut microbiome, including microbes associated with lower risk of frailty, better brain function, and lower inflammation.
Gut. 2020 Jul;69(7):1218-1228. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319654. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Healthy Lifestyle (Including Mediterranean Diet) Linked with Lower Risk of Alzheimer's

Eating a nutritious diet is one of the many daily lifestyle choices that can have an impact on our health, especially as we age. Researchers followed 2,765 adults in the Chicago area for over 5 years to see if their lifestyle choices were related to their risk of Alzheimer’s dementia. They specifically looked for these 5 healthy lifestyle factors: 1) not smoking, 2) at least 150 minutes per week of exercise, 3) low to moderate alcohol consumption, 4) following a Mediterranean-inspired healthy diet, and 5) participating in late-life “cognitive activities” like reading, crafting, playing games, and socializing. Compared with adults following 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factor, the risk of Alzheimer’s dementia was 37% lower in those following 2 or 3 healthy lifestyle factors, and 60% lower in those following 4 or 5 healthy lifestyle factors.
Neurology. 2020 Jun 17;10.1212/WNL.0000000000009816. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009816. (Dhana K et al.)

Spaniards Locked Down During COVID-19 Shift Back to Traditional Mediterranean Diet

Lockdowns and restaurant closures related to the global COVID-19 pandemic have swiftly changed the way people eat, leaving many people with little choice but to eat more home-cooked meals. Researchers analyzed the diets of 7,514 Spaniards during the COVID-19 pandemic, and also asked them about their eating habits before the pandemic. During the pandemic, when people were forced to eat more home-cooked meals, researchers noted that the Mediterranean diet score of these participants (a measure of how closely people follow the Mediterranean diet) significantly increased. The people who improved their diet reported eating more olive oil, vegetables, fruits, or legumes, and less fried foods, snacks, fast foods, red meat, pastries, or sweetened drinks. The authors conclude that, “this improvement, if sustained in the long-term, could have a positive impact on the prevention of chronic diseases and COVID-19-related complications.”
Nutrients. 2020 Jun 10;12(6):E1730. doi: 10.3390/nu12061730.(Rodríguez-Pérez C et al.)

3rd Party Labeling Like the WG Stamp Helps Steer Consumers Towards Quality Carbohydrate Foods

Carbohydrates are part of a balanced diet, but not all carbohydrates are created equal. In this review, researchers analyzed different labeling strategies that help consumers identify healthy carbohydrate foods when shopping. They identified quality carbohydrates are identified as those that are high in fiber, have high levels of whole grains, or have a low glycemic index or glycemic response. The Whole Grain Stamp was one of many voluntary labeling programs highlighted by the authors as a way to help consumers find quality carbohydrate foods. The authors conclude that it is important for governments to enable these types of 3rd party labeling systems to help steer consumers towards healthier carbohydrate choices.
Nutrients. 2020 Jun 9;12(6):1725. doi:10.3390/nu12061725 (Marinangeli, CPF et al.)

Whole Grains Linked with 22% Lower Risk of Digestive Cancers

Studies have shown that whole grains provide dietary fiber and a variety of phytochemicals that contribute an important role in preventing chronic diseases such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and cancers. A systematic review of different studies was performed to analyze how whole grain consumption reduced different digestive cancer risks. Looking at all 35 studies, encompassing  266,378 participants, researchers found that eating more whole grains was linked with a 22% lower risk of developing various digestive tract cancers. Whole grains were also linked with an 11% lower risk of colorectal cancer, a 36% lower risk of gastric cancer, and a 46% lower risk of esophageal cancer. 
Nutrition Journal. 2020 Jun 3;19(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s12937-020-00556-6. (Zhang XF et al.)

Seafood and Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Brain Health in Aging

To see how the Mediterranean diet relates to brain health, researchers analyzed the diets and health of 7,756 older adults. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet had a significantly lower risk of cognitive impairment but did not have a significantly slower decline in cognitive function. However, those eating the most fish had both a significantly lower risk of cognitive impairment and a significantly slower decline in cognitive function.
Alzheimers Dement. 2020 Jun;16(6):831-842. doi: 10.1002/alz.12077. Epub 2020 Apr 13. (Keenan TD et al.)

Healthy Immigrant Effect Linked with Brain Health

In Canada, immigrants account for around 20% of the population. They tend to be healthier and have a longer life span compared to those who were born in Canada. This phenomenon is called the “healthy immigrant effect.” In this study of 8,574 middle-aged adults, researchers investigated whether the healthy immigrant effect plays a role in brain health. The results indicated that the long-term immigrants (>20 years) were more likely to have significantly higher verbal fluency scores (a marker of brain health) than the Canada-born individuals. Those who ate more pulses, nuts, fruits, and vegetables, also appeared to be more likely to have higher verbal fluency scores.
Journal of Nutrition, Health, & Aging. 2020 June 1;24(6):672-680. doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1402-8 (Fuller-Thomson E et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Incidence of Colorectal Cancer

Healthy, higher fiber diets with whole grains can help lower the risk of colorectal cancer, so researchers wonder if overall dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, might also be impactful. In an analysis of 13 studies, scientists found that most closely following a Mediterranean diet was linked with a lower frequency of new colorectal cancer cases, but there was no significant impact on the risk of death from colorectal cancer nor all-cause mortality in the study groups.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Jun 1;111(6):1214-1225. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa083. (Zhong Y et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Improves Quality of Life, BMI in Patients with IBD

The Mediterranean diet is well known for its anti-inflammatory properties, so it stands to reason that the Mediterranean diet may be helpful in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. In a study of 284 Italian adults with inflammatory bowel diseases (including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) who were assigned to a Mediterranean diet for 6 months, eating a Mediterranean diet improved their quality of life, BMI, and waist circumference and reduced signs of fat in the liver, but did not significantly impact their cholesterol or liver function.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2020 May 22;izaa097. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izaa097. Online ahead of print. (Chicco F et al.)

Less Processed Whole Grain Foods Linked with Better Blood Sugar Control in People with Diabetes

Replacing refined grains (like white bread or white rice) with whole grains (like whole grain bread or brown rice) is a simple swap that can yield measurable health benefits. But what if you are already eating whole grains and are ready to take the next step? In this study, researchers randomly assigned 63 adults in New Zealand with type 2 diabetes to a diet with either intact, minimally processed grain foods (whole oats, brown rice, whole wheat bread made with coarse whole grains) or more processed, finely milled whole grains (instant oats, brown rice pasta, whole grain bread made of finely milled flour). Those in the less processed group had a significantly lower post-meal blood sugar response and lower blood sugar variability throughout the day, indicating better blood sugar control.
Diabetes Care. 2020 May; dc200263. doi:10.2337/dc20-0263.(Åberg S et al.)

Pages