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Low GI Pasta Meals Can Lead to Weight Loss

Keep the pasta, lose the pounds! Pasta is a low Glycemic Index food, meaning that it doesn’t spike your blood sugar. To see how low glycemic diets with pasta relate to weight, researchers analyzed 32 randomized clinical trial comparisons involving 2,448 adults (who were mostly middle aged and overweight or obese). Compared with high Glycemic Index diets, the low Glycemic Index diets with pasta (about three ½ cup servings per week) were linked with modest weight loss (0.63 kg, or 1.4 pounds), even without cutting calories.
BMJ. 2018 April 4;8(3):1-13. (Chiavaroli L et al.)

Cruciferous Veggies Linked with Less Plaque Build Up in Arteries

If you want to keep your arteries in tip-top shape, you may want to add an extra helping of broccoli or Brussels sprouts to your meals. In a study of more than 900 older women (ages 70+), those consuming 3 or more servings of vegetables each day had lower levels of plaque in their arteries (as measured by CCA-IMT). When looking at the different types of vegetables, cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, and bok choy) had the strongest relationship, as each 10 gram serving was linked with 0.8% less plaque (as measured by CCA-IMT).
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2018 Apr 4;7(8). (Blekkenhorst LC et al.).

Protein from Nuts and Seeds Linked with Less Death from Heart Disease than Protein from Meat

Protein is important for our muscles, enzymes, and numerous essential body processes, but not all protein is created equal. To see how different protein sources relate to heart disease deaths, researchers carefully analyzed the diets of 81,337 men and women. Those getting more protein from nuts and seeds were significantly less likely to die from heart disease than those not getting as much protein from nuts and seeds. On the other hand, those getting more protein from animal sources had a higher risk of dying from heart disease. The relationship between heart disease death and these foods was so strong, even after controlling for other diet and lifestyle factors, that the researchers concluded that the link “could not be ascribed to other associated nutrients considered to be important for cardiovascular health.”
International Journal of Epidemiology. 2018 Apr 2. [Epub ahead of print] (Tharrey M et al.)

Beans, Grains, and Fiber Linked with Lower Risk of Breast Cancer

It’s important to get your fiber from a variety of foods, since different sources of fiber are associated with different health benefits. Researchers analyzed the eating patterns of 2,135 patients with breast cancer and 2,571 controls to see how different foods and fibers might relate to breast cancer risk. Those eating the most fiber (more than 26.5 grams per day) were 25% less likely to have breast cancer than those eating less than 15.2 grams of fiber per day. Similarly, those eating the most beans (more than 3.9 oz per day) and grains (more than 13.8 oz per day, of both whole and refined grains) were 19% and 18% less likely to have breast cancer, respectively, than those eating the least amount of beans and grains.
Cancer Medicine. 2018 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print] (Sangaramoorthy M et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Healthier Bones and Muscles After Menopause

Women lose bone mass during menopause, so strategies to prevent osteoporosis in this population are of utmost importance. In a study of 103 post-menopausal women (average age 55), researchers analyzed their diet and body composition. Most closely following a Mediterranean diet was linked with better muscle mass and greater spine bone mineral density than those not eating Mediterranean foods like olive oil, fish, and grains. (Note that findings presented at meetings are typically viewed as preliminary until they’ve been published in a peer-reviewed journal.)
Presented at ENDO 2018: The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting. Chicago, Illinois. March 20, 2018.

Brown Rice Stays in Stomach Longer than White Rice, Good for Blood Sugar and Nutrient Absorption

Brown rice and other whole grains have been long known to “stick to your ribs,” and new research explains why. In a small study, 10 healthy adults were fed various types of white rice and brown rice over 7 weeks, with a breath hydrogen test to track how long their stomach stayed full. The brown rice samples all stayed in the stomach significantly longer than the white rice samples, likely because the bran takes longer to break down. Slow stomach emptying helps the body better regulate how nutrients are digested and absorbed, and helps create a more gentle blood sugar response (rather than a blood sugar spike).
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018 Mar;72(3):367-373. (Pletsch EA et al.)

Delayed Gluten Introduction May Be Linked with Type 1 Diabetes Risk

In a study of 8,676 babies with a genetic risk for type 1 diabetes, researchers took blood samples every 3 months for at least 9 months after birth and analyzed their diet. Every 1-month delay in gluten introduction was linked with a significantly higher risk of the immune system attacking the pancreatic cells that are important for blood sugar regulation (as measured by islet autoimmunity) as well as higher levels of insulin autoantibodies, which are predictors of type 1 diabetes. In fact, introducing gluten after 9 months was linked with a 57% higher risk of islet autoimmunity than introducing gluten between 4-9 months of age. The researchers suggest that the timing of gluten be studied further, so that healthcare providers can more confidently suggest a recommended window.
Diabetes Care. 2018 Mar;41(3):522-530. (Uusitalo U et al.)

High Fiber Diet Promotes Select Gut Bacteria to Better Manage Diabetes

In line with many other countries, the usual care for patients with diabetes in China is education about balanced diets and blood sugar management strategies. In a small study, 43 patients with diabetes were randomly assigned to either these standard recommendations, or a high-fiber diet with whole grains and traditional Chinese medicinal foods. Both groups significantly improved their blood sugar (as measured by HbA1c) over the 12-week study, but significantly more people in the whole grain group (89% vs 50%) got their blood sugar to a well-managed level (HbA1c < 7%). To see how gut microbes might play a role, researchers also analyzed the gut bacteria of the participants. They found that the fiber from whole grains stimulated select bacteria to produce short chain fatty acids, which in turn, helped the body better manage blood sugar.
Science. 2018 March 9;6380(359):1151-1156. (Zhao L et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Agility and Mobility Problems in Aging

Maintaining healthy physical function is important to help seniors live comfortably and independently as they age. To see if diet relates to physical function, researchers analyzed the eating patterns and physical function of 1,630 seniors (ages 60+) in Spain. Those most closely following a Mediterranean Diet (as measured by MEDAS, the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) were 33% less likely to have problems with agility, 31% less likely to have problems with mobility, and 40% less likely to have decreased overall physical function. Note that when eating patterns were analyzed by MDS (the Mediterranean Diet Score, which is less thorough then MEDAS, as it covers fewer foods and doesn’t have specific cut-off points for each food group), the relationship was only statistically significant for physical functioning.
The Journals of Gerontology. 2018 Mar 2;73(3):333-339. (Struijk EA et al.)

Synthetic Folate (Found in Enriched Grains) Linked with Food Allergies in Kids

In the US, most refined grains are enriched with high levels of folic acid, to help prevent neural tube defects in children, such as spina bifida. However, new research raises questions about the benefits of high levels of synthetic folate in children. In a study of 1,394 children, the kids who developed food allergies were found to have higher levels of UMFA, which is a derivative of synthetic folate. The authors conclude that “more research is needed to conclude whether mothers should consider consuming different sources of folate, like leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, beans or lentils instead of synthetic forms of folate.” (Note that findings presented at meetings are typically viewed as preliminary until they’ve been published in a peer-reviewed journal.)
Presented at American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology Annual Meeting. Orlando, Florida. March 2-5, 2018.

Both Mediterranean and Vegetarian Diets Effective for Weight Loss

From Mediterranean to vegetarian, many of the world’s healthiest diets actually have more similarities than differences, so it’s not surprising to find that both these diets can be an effective path to weight loss. In this study, researchers randomly assigned 118 overweight adults who normally eat meat to either a lower calorie Mediterranean diet or a lower calorie vegetarian diet for 3 months. After a two-week assessment, the participants then switched to the other diet for 3 months. Participants lost about 4 pounds during each diet, and both diets were also effective at decreasing body fat. The only significant difference between the diets was that the vegetarian was slightly more effective in lowering bad (LDL) cholesterol, while the Mediterranean diet was slightly more effective in lowering triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood).
Circulation. 2018 Feb 26. (Sofi F et al.) [Epub ahead of print]

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

Lifestyle habits, like diet, are an important part of a cancer-protective strategy. To see if diet relates to prostate cancer risk, researchers analyzed the eating habits of 754 men with prostate cancer, and 1,277 controls without prostate cancer. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were 34% less likely to have an aggressive form of prostate cancer than those not following a Mediterranean diet. A Western diet (filled with fast food, sweets, and red meat) and a prudent diet (filled with low fat dairy, juice, produce, and whole grains) were not found to be linked to prostate cancer risk.
Journal of Urology. 2018 Feb;199(2):430-437. (Castello A et al.)

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