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Mediterranean Diet Linked with Slower Prostate Cancer Progression, Better Survival

Many patients diagnosed with prostate cancer don’t need immediate intervention, so strictly monitoring the disease progression is critical. This study collected data from 410 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and measured how closely they were following the Mediterranean Diet. After 36 months of follow-up, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were less likely to have significant disease progression, and were more likely to have a better rate of survival.
Cancer. 2021 Mar 1; 127(5):720-728. doi:10.1002/cncr.33182. (Gregg JR et al.)

Parboiling Reduces Arsenic and Preserves Nutrients in Rice

Arsenic is a naturally occurring element found in varying degrees in all soils and water, meaning that some foods, like rice, naturally contain low levels of arsenic depending on where and how it’s grown. Luckily, certain cooking and processing methods can dramatically decrease the level of arsenic rice. In this study, researchers found that parboiling your brown rice can remove up to 54% of unwanted heavy metals like arsenic from your rice (outperforming soaking or rinsing), and can also preserve important micronutrients such as zinc. You can achieve this at home by boiling your rice for 5 minutes and setting it aside for when you’re ready to cook it. You can also buy parboiled rice at the store.  
The Science of the Total Environment. 2021 Feb 10;755(Pt 2):143341. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143341.(Menon M et al.)

Plant Based Diets Can Lower Blood Pressure

Studies have shown that plant-based diets can help lower blood pressure, but researchers wonder how strict you must be with your vegetarian diet to see results. A systematic review of 41 clinical trials was performed to see how different plant-based diets, including some with low levels of animal products (the Mediterranean, Vegan, Nordic, high-fiber, and high-fruit and vegetable diets) impacted blood pressure. The results showed that even plant-based diet with limited animal products can be effective in reducing high pressure, indicating that even small steps to improve health can make a measurable difference. 
Journal of Hypertension. 2021 Jan;39(1):23-37. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000002604. (Gibbs, J.et al)

Mediterranean Diet Linked to Lower Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common progressive nervous system disorders, and previous studies indicate a potential link between diet and the risk of Parkinson’s disease. In this study, 49,261 middle-aged Swedish women were followed up for an average of 10 years to track their eating habits and whether or not they were diagnosed with Parkinson’s. The researchers found that those most closely following a Mediterranean diet had a significantly lower risk of being diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease, especially among women aged 65 years or older.
Movement Disorders. 2021 Jan;36(1):255-260. doi:10.1002/mds.28314. (Yin W et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Thyroid Health

Our thyroids act as internal thermostats providing our bodies with hormones that help balance our heart, muscle, and digestive function, brain development, and bone maintenance. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits and health of 200 people, about half with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease that attacks the thyroid) and half without. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were less likely to have Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Eating more animal foods (like meat) and fewer plant foods (like vegetables) was also linked with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.  However, more research is needed on how diet might impact autoimmune and thyroid health.
Thyroid. 2021 Jan;31(1):96-105. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0299. (Ruggeri RM et al.)

Unsubstantiated Health Beliefs Lead People to Avoid Gluten Unnecessarily

Following a gluten-free diet is required for those with celiac disease or medically diagnosed gluten sensitivities. Because gluten-free foods tend to be less nutritious and may raise the risk of nutrient deficiencies, researchers wanted to know what motivates people to avoid gluten when it is not medically necessary. In this study, 2,982 adults in the US without celiac disease were surveyed about their beliefs regarding gluten-free diets. Compared with people who eat gluten, people without celiac disease who avoid gluten are more likely to believe medically unsubstantiated claims (that gluten-free diets are more nutritious and can improve acne).  
Appetite. 2021 Jan 1; 156:104958. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2020.104958 (Arslain K et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Brain Health in Aging

A growing body of research demonstrates the Mediterranean diet’s relationship with healthy aging. This British study focused on 511 individuals whose average age was 79 years old. The scientists collected data on eating habits and brain health from the participants. They found that those who more closely follow a Mediterranean diet are more likely  to have overall better cognitive function, including better memory, visuospatial ability, and verbal ability. Furthermore, the study found that eating more  green leafy vegetables and lessmeat may be linked withbetter cognitive performance. 
Experimental Gerontology. 2020 Dec; 142:111117. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2020.111117. (Corley J et al.)

Benefits of the African Yam Bean

The African yam bean is a legume that grows in West and East Africa. In this review, scientists detail the protein and antioxidant content of the African yam bean as well as how the African yam bean could be used to enhance overall nutritional quality (such as using it in breakfast foods, traditional dishes, snacks, and even instant noodles).  
Heliyon. 2020 Nov; 6(11): e05458. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05458 (George TT et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

The Mediterranean diet is linked with a lower risk of diabetes, and researchers want to learn more about the mechanisms behind this protective effect. This study followed up a group of 25,317 middle-aged women without diabetes for approximately 20 years. The results indicated that those who strictly follow the Mediterranean diet tend to have a 30% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those who don’t follow a Mediterranean diet. The lower risk of diabetes could be partially explained by better insulin resistance, lower inflammation, and lower cholesterol in the women who followed a Mediterranean diet, and the results were especially strong in people who were overweight at the beginning of the study.
JAMA Network Open. 2020 Nov 2; 3(11):e2025466. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25466 (Ahmad S et al.)

Switching to Whole Grains Can Improve Cholesterol, Blood Sugar Control, and Inflammation

Randomized controlled trials are the “gold standard” of nutrition research as they can be used to establish cause and effect. In this article, researchers analyzed more than 20 randomized controlled trials to see how replacing refined grains with whole grains can impact health. They found that for adults both with and without risk factors of heart disease, substituting whole grains for refined can improve total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c (a measure of blood sugar control), and C-reactive protein (a measure of inflammation). 
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2020 Nov;120(11):1859-1883.e31. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2020.06.021. (Marshall S et al.)

Green Tea and Coffee Linked with Longer Lifespan in People with Diabetes

Green tea and coffee contain healthy antioxidants, and researchers wonder if benefits of these beverages extend to people with type 2 diabetes as well. In this study, scientists followed 4,923 Japanese adults (aged 66, on average) with type 2 diabetes for about 5 years to study their beverage habits and health outcomes. Compared with drinking no green tea, drinking at least 4 cups per day was linked with a 40% lower risk of death, drinking 2-3 cups was linked with a 27% lower risk of death, and drinking smaller amounts (up to 1 cup per day) was linked with a 15% lower risk of death. Similarly, compared with never drinking coffee, drinking at least 2 cups per day was linked with a 41% lower risk of death, drinking 1 cup per day was linked with a 19% lower risk of death, and drinking smaller amounts (less than 1 cup per day) was linked with a 12% lower risk of death. Interestingly, the benefits of drinking both coffee and green tea were additive, meaning that drinking both coffee and green tea each day may be extra beneficial.
BMJ Open Diabetes Research Care. 2020 Oct;8(1):e001252. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001252. (Komorita Y et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Longer Lives

The secret to longer life just might be in your kitchen. A large study of 5,094 Italian men was conducted over a seven-year period to see how their daily diets and lifestyle habits affected mortality rates. Those most closely following the Mediterranean diet were less likely to die over the study period. Additionally, the researchers also found a significant relationship between lower death risk and eating higher amounts of vegetables, proteins, fats, starch, folic acid, and monounsaturated fats from plant-based sources (mostly from olive oil). On the other hand, animal fats and sugar were linked with a greater risk of death over the study period.
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2020 Sept 24;30(10):1673-1678. doi.10.1016/j.numecd.2020.05.034 (Trevisan M et al.)

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