“Good bread is the most fundamentally satisfying of all foods,” said chef and food writer James Beard, “and good bread with fresh butter, the greatest of feasts.”

While many people would still agree with Beard, bread today is under siege (along with the wheat from which it’s made) in sensationalist books like Wheat Belly and Grain Brain. “Wheat is the great disruptor. It’s the floozy girlfriend of the midlife crisis male, bursting apart the entire happy family,” says the author of Wheat Belly. Really?

Because Oldways always grounds its work in solid science, we talk regularly to scientists, doctors, dietitians and others experts around the world. Today I want to share with you six important things you should know about what’s up with wheat, gluten and human health.

#1. Most of us can eat wheat just fine. I’ll start at the conclusion: the world’s top gluten researchers and celiac doctors agree that there’s no reason that all of us should avoid gluten, the protein found in wheat, barley and rye that gives these grains their stretchy ability to turn into risen loaves. About 0.4-0.8% of us have a wheat allergy, around 1% of people have celiac disease (an auto-immune disorder to gluten that damages the intestinal lining), and another estimated 6% or so of people have something that’s been tentatively termed “non-celiac gluten sensitivity” (more on that later). It’s no small thing that as many as 8-10% of us may need to avoid gluten – but that does mean that 90% or more of us can enjoy a crusty fresh loaf of wheat bread.

#2. Celiac disease doesn’t always show up as digestive symptoms. “Celiac disease can present with many more symptoms than we ever thought possible,” according to Dr. Dan Leffler, director of research at Boston’s Celiac Center at BIDMC. Extra-intestinal symptoms like anemia, osteoporosis, and headaches may in fact be more common than gut troubles. Many people have no obvious symptoms and find out they have the disease only when they get tested after learning a first-degree relative has CD.

#3. Gluten levels in wheat have stayed steady. Wheat Belly’s author claims that modern wheat is toxic, GMO, and higher in gluten than wheat eaten before about 1950. Donald Kasarda, a USDA researcher, surveyed data going back to the beginning of the 20th century, and found that gluten levels in wheat have stayed pretty much the same for more than 100 years. Kasarda does note, however, that the use of vital wheat gluten as a food additive has increased three-fold in the last 15 years. (It’s also useful to note that none of the wheat in our food supply is GMO – something wheat farmers have fought against tooth and nail, as it would affect their export markets.)

#4. Gluten-free diets aren’t much fun. Just because your favorite actress or athlete touts a gluten-free diet for weight loss or performance doesn’t make it so. While it’s possible to eat well on a gluten-free diet, most people who follow a GF diet actually gain weight, and are more apt to have deficiencies in nutrients including fiber, iron, calcium, and zinc. Recent research backs this up. Dr. Alessio Fasano, of the Center for Celiac Research and Treatment at MassGeneral Hospital for Children, shakes his head when speaking about those who go on a GF diet without proper diagnosis: “If you thought you had diabetes you wouldn’t self-diagnose and shoot yourself full of insulin every day just to see what would happen! Why do people put themselves on a gluten-free diet?”

#5. Maybe the gluten’s not to blame. While gluten is certainly a factor in celiac disease, many scientists presenting in Chicago questioned whether “non-celiac gluten sensitivity” is the right term for the larger group of people who have symptoms that lessen or disappear on a diet without wheat, barley and rye. Gluten may not be troubling these folks at all. A few of the possible culprits: certain enzyme deficiencies, other components of wheat (including a pest-resistance factor that has been bred to higher levels, and to which some people are sensitive), or “FODMAPS” an acronym for certain hard-to-digest sugars found in a wide range of foods (including wheat, barley and rye) that can cause gut problems for some people.

A September 2017 meta-analysis, combining data from 11 clinical trials, found that 70% of people thought to have non-celiac gluten sensitivity do not in fact show a relapse of symptoms when they unknowingly consume gluten, though this dropped slightly to 60% when a new broader definition of symptoms (the Salerno criteria) was applied.

#6. No one is born with celiac disease. As Dr. Fasano says, “People can avoid celiac disease for years. Why does tolerance then get replaced by celiac disease?” Many experts feel that the documented increase in sensitivity to gluten could be due more to changes in our gut than to changes in the wheat itself. It’s a fact that 30-40% of us have the genes that predispose us to celiac disease, but only 1% of the population flips over into celiac disease. So what is causing more of us to lose our inborn tolerance for gluten?

Putting it all together
Gluten is in fact one of the most difficult proteins to digest, but almost all of us have done just fine digesting it for millennia, thank you very much. Now celiac disease and gluten sensitivity are rising, in tandem with the rise in other auto-immune diseases and allergies. Scientists we’ve talked with mentioned several factors that seem to increase our risk for celiac disease: Increased use of antibiotics, which wipe out good bacteria and bad in the gut. The rise in Caesarian deliveries, which bypass the mother’s usual transfer of bacteria to the baby. The hygiene hypothesis, which theorizes that our immune systems don’t develop properly anymore because our super-clean homes don’t give them enough early exercise. (Breastfeeding and time of introduction of gluten were also thought to be possible celiac risk factors for many years, but recent research has failed to show an association.)

All of these factors throw off the bacteria in our gut. Perhaps hard-to-digest gluten is simply the canary in the coal mine, alerting us that something’s gone seriously wrong in our gut ecology. (If gluten didn’t exist, the next-in-line hard-to-digest protein might be getting all the blame!) Rather than point a finger at the canary and say, “bad gluten” many scientists are suggesting we should take a hard look at what’s going wrong in the “coal mine” – the human gut.

Want to learn more? Check out Michael Pollan’s classic explanation of how the foods you eat influence your gut bacteria, and how your gut bacteria may influence the foods you eat! If we all eat a balanced, traditional diet of whole, minimally-processed foods, maybe we can safeguard our ability to digest gluten and enjoy the “most fundamentally satisfying of all foods” – bread.

Cynthia Harriman, Director of Food and Nutrition Strategies


I thought I had a gluten intolerance until I learned that yeast was the cause of my bloating and indigestion. The worst culprits are freshly baked breads (less than 24 hours-old) and sourdough. So glad I can still enjoy my favorite grains like wheat, oats and barley but just not in bread form.
The broad rise is food allergies and sensitivities can't be a coincidence. It isn't just gluten, it's peanuts, eggs, lactose, soy, ad nauseum (pun intended). There has to be a common factor, or set of factors making us a less robust species. Maybe it's our cell phones irradiating our disinfectant wipes.
Paul Erez
There IS a common cause - chronic inflammation is recognized as the cause of 80% of modern illnesses. Gluten makes the body generate a hormone called Zonulin, which opens the intestinal barriers that enable food to enter the body while keeping garbage out - resulting in chronic inflammation. About 40 years ago, we MASSIVELY increased our gluten consumption, and immediately there was a massive increase in many illnesses. (Google "TIme Magazine Inflammation).
Bulls***... it looks like it's written by a cereal company :D
Thank you for reading our blog, Lucas! Oldways doesn’t represent any single organization, and our mission is to promote healthy eating backed by science and research. If you have any specific questions about any of the findings outlined in this piece, please let us know.
All I know is when I eat gluten and wheat, I get heart burn, nausea, bloating and diarrhea. I stopped eating gluten and every bit of this discomfort went away. I haven't had to take Prilosec, and no diarrhea since I went gluten free.
A nutritionist mentioned gluten free to my wife and she decided to try this option. Background is we've been married for 59 years and she's had a headache more days than not. Since she's been on a gluten free diet s h e hasn't had a headache in months. She is so thankful that someone told her of that possibility.
Abigail Saponar...
Great article!!! This is a constant battle with clients in my practice. This misinformation from Wheat Belly and Grain Brain is causing so much confusion! Always looking for evidence based articles to share with my patients and clients. Thanks! :)
You're welcome! Glad to hear.
Thank you for trying to shed light on a confusing topic. However, I believe you added to the confusion and I think your blog on this topic failed your readers. If you want to present a credible argument, the last thing you want to do is to use a biased source. Using the Whole Grains Council is analogous to using a cigarette company to prove that smoking is not that bad for you. There is plenty of "science and research" that says the exact opposite. The real challenge is for blogs like yours to sift through the information and present the most credible information without a biased spin. Much of the information presented here is accurate (to a degree). And you do make some great points. But there is an important piece of the puzzle that is missing. As Cal on commented, it is not only wheat, it is the myriad of other items consumed that exacerbates the problem. However, the sheer volume of wheat based products that is consumed is a major factor in the wheat problem. Final point, just because most people can digest wheat does not necessarily mean it is not unhealthy. Most people can digest small quantities of poison. But I dare say that nobody would ever say that its ok to consume poison. Thank you for your blog!
Hi Daniel, Thanks for taking the time to comment! You’re absolutely right to point out that there is a lot of conflicting information out there about gluten and other nutrition topics. Oldways (and the Whole Grains Council, which is one of the programs run by Oldways) is a non-profit whose mission is to promote healthy eating using information grounded in science. For more information about peer-reviewed research relating to gluten, we encourage you to explore our Health Studies database:
I agree with you. There’s also unanswered questions and research on the correlation of high intolerance and wheat based food being forced in school lunches.
I worry way more over the years we consumed wheat and oats and corn that used pesticides like glyphosate!! Have had a autoimmune now for many years along with my husband. Don't know what to eat!!
Patti templeton
Sure beat the bush around, but not into glphosate poisons and the issues with autoimmunes and ingesting bread causing a lot of health issues withheld from the public for years.
It's confusing that you make two statements that seem to contradict each other. 1. "It’s also useful to note that none of the wheat in our food supply is GMO," 2. "...other components of wheat (including a pest-resistance factor that has been bred to higher levels..."
Hi Michael – Plant breeders are able to use traditional cross-breeding techniques (not GMOs) to create varieties of wheat that are more pest-resistant, in the same way that they are able to cross-breed varieties that grow stiffer stalks (so they are not as easily damaged by wind), or taller plants (so they can be more easily harvested). These characteristics are bred by selecting from the natural variation that already exists in wheat crops. In fact, all domesticated crops are bred for various characteristics that make them more flavorful or easier to grow/harvest. The process of creating GMO crops, on the other hand, requires a technique that is different than cross-breeding. GMOs are bred by isolating foreign genetic material, or DNA, (taken from a different plant or organism) and injecting it into the cells of the target crop in order to create variation. There is no commercially available GMO wheat.
Jeanie Malone
Thank you for this information; especially this reply regarding the difference between natural cross pollination and gmo crops. I cannot currently eat wheat due to FODMAP issues but hope to again someday once my gut is healthier. I didn’t know until reading your article that there is no gmo wheat grown in the US. I would however like to see the farmers resist the use of chemicals such as glyphosate to improve our national health and possibly the tolerance for wheat in our diets. I buy organic wheat products for my husband and find it close to impossible to find many gluten free alternatives that are also organic. I hope to enjoy wheat again someday. Thanks for your blog.
I use organic flour and use 1/4 teaspoon in my bread 3 cups of flour ...I let it rise 18 to 24 hours...I read that if you do this it is less gluten I. The bread was a article from Italy .. Because people don’t have a problem eating wheat pasta and bread there ...
I read that winter wheat has more gluten. Then I read that spring wheat has more gluten. So, which is it and what makes it so?
Hi Roman — The characteristic that indicates the gluten level of a wheat variety is whether it’s hard or soft, rather than whether it’s a winter wheat or spring wheat. When a wheat is hard, it means that the variety has a naturally higher protein content than other wheats. Since gluten is a type of protein found in wheat, hard wheats also have higher, “stronger" levels of gluten. There are hard winter wheats and hard spring wheats and they all have elevated levels of protein and gluten. Soft wheat, on the other hand, has a lower protein content and therefore a lower, “weaker” gluten level. Different types of wheat perform better in different applications so knowing whether you’re using a hard or soft wheat is helpful. In general, hard wheats make better breads and pastas, whereas soft wheats make better cakes and pastries.
I gave up wheat 4 years ago to prevent inflammation. Two words. It works. In my late 50, all I gave up was wheat and my flexibility increased 10-fold. Wheat is not just about digestion issues.
I had test done for celiac . Doesn't show anything.But I have fibromyalgia and when I am on gluten free diet most of my pain desapear and when I came back to diet with gluten my pain camo back. What is this. What kind of tests should I have to diagnose what it I? Thank you
Hi Cecilia, You should speak to your doctor about this.
Definitely talk to your doctor but don't be surprised if they think it's in your head. Gluten can cause all sorts of problems including neurological ones. There is no test for non celiac gluten sensitivity which makes doctors question its existence. Just keep pushing.
Smita there are issues with wheat production in this country! I don't agree with this article! Thanks Smita
Pizza, pasta, bread and everything wheat related were my favorite foods. I am over 50 years old. About 5 years ago I started getting all the symptoms mentioned here as well as high BP and palpitation. My fitness level is near endurance athletes' levels (for my age). I have been a fitness fanatic since my teens. These symptoms did not make sense. So, after some research I decided to experiment with eliminating gluten from my diet. Now my palpitations have gone. Under the supervision of my doctor I am now BP med free. Whenever I inadvertently consume gluten laced foods I get the common symptoms and, about a day later, high BP (for about a day or two). If I continue consuming glutenous food, the BP keeps rising. This is just my own observation and experimentation on me. I am making this comment in case it helps anyone get off meds. My physician does not believe gluten is causing my elevated BP. But I monitor my BP regularly and take proof of my BP reading to the doctor. Readings don't lie and, after observing the history of my daily readings over 3 months, the doctor has asked me to stop with the meds.
Dale Robinson
Dr. Dale Bredesen in his book "The End of Alzheimer's" contends that gluten damages the human brain. I’m not finding anyone else who is saying that. Is he right?

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