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Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Bone Mass in Women

A traditional Mediterranean diet includes frequent, but low-to-moderate amounts of dairy products, mostly in the form of artisanal cheeses and yogurts. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits and bone density in 442 pre-menopausal women in Spain. Following a Mediterranean diet was linked with significantly better bone mass.
Nutrients. 2019 Mar 5;11(3). pii: E555. doi: 10.3390/nu11030555. (Pérez-Rey J et al.)

Mediterranean Diet May Improve Athletic Performance

Proper nutrition is increasingly becoming an important aspect of athletic training, and it is easy to see why. In a small study, 11 young adults ran a 5K after 4 days of eating a Mediterranean diet, and after 4 days of eating a typical Western diet. The 5K time after the Mediterranean diet was about 2 minutes faster than the race time after eating a Western diet. However, there were no significant differences in vertical jump height or hand grip strength between the 2 diets.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2019 Feb 13:1-9. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2019.1568322. [Epub ahead of print] (Baker ME et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Bladder Cancer

While there have been several studies investigating the link between specific foods or food groups and the risk of bladder cancer, studies investigating overall diet patterns are limited. In this analysis, researchers pooled data from 13 studies investigating the link between diet and bladder cancer. They analyzed the diet of over 600,000 participants to evaluate how closely the participants follow the Mediterranean diet. The researchers found that participants who most closely followed the Mediterranean diet had a significantly lower risk of bladder cancer than those who did not follow the diet. The researchers believe that the high intake of plant-based foods and olive oil in the Mediterranean diet may have a protective effect against bladder cancer due to the antioxidants and vitamins present in these foods.
European Journal of Nutrition. 2019 Feb 8. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-01907-8. (Witlox WJA, et al)

Combining Statins with Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Death from Heart Disease

Statins are a type of cholesterol lowering medication often prescribed to patients with heart disease. To see how diet might impact the effectiveness of statins, researchers analyzed the eating habits and health outcomes of 1,180 older adults with heart disease for 8 years. Those most closely following a Mediterranean Diet were 30% less likely to die from heart disease over the study period. However, statins only reduced heart disease death risk when taken in combination with the Mediterranean diet. Furthermore, the patients taking statins in combination with a Mediterranean diet had a 50% lower risk of dying of heart disease than those just using one approach (diet or medicine). The researchers suspect that this synergistic effect may be due to the anti-inflammatory effects of the Mediterranean Diet. 
International Journal of Cardiology.  2019 Feb 1;276:248-254. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.11.117. (Bonaccio M et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the nervous system that can cause stiffness and tremors, and make movement difficult. In a study of 1,731 elderly adults, those most closely following a Mediterranean Diet had a 21% lower probability of showing early signs of Parkinson’s Disease (prodromal Parkinson’s disease) than those not following a Mediterranean diet.
Movement Disorders. 2019 Jan;34(1):48-57. doi: 10.1002/mds.27489. (Maraki MI et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with ¼ Lower Heart Disease Risk in Women

The Mediterranean diet is closely linked with heart health, and researchers want to learn more about the underlying mechanisms behind this connection. In this study researchers analyzed the diet and health outcomes of 25,994 women for 12 years. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were 28% less likely to develop heart disease than those not following a Mediterranean diet. Even those who were only moderately following a Mediterranean diet had a 23% lower risk of heart disease, indicating that even small lifestyle changes can have a meaningful impact on health. The researchers suspect that part of the heart health benefits may be related to lower inflammation, as women most closely following the Mediterranean diet had significantly lower levels of biomarkers of inflammation. Other factors shown to affect the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and heart health are the Mediterranean diet’s links to blood sugar management, BMI, blood pressure, and cholesterol.
JAMA Network Open. 2018 Dec 7;1(8):e185708. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5708 (Ahmad S et al.)

Mediterranean Diet with Dairy May Help with Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

In a traditional Mediterranean diet, dairy was eaten often, but in small amounts (typically fermented dairy products, like artisanal cheese and Greek yogurt). Researchers wonder if a Mediterranean diet with slightly more dairy might still offer some benefits, so they randomly assigned 41 adults at risk of heart disease to a Mediterranean diet with 3-4 servings of dairy per day, or a low fat diet. Compared to a low fat diet, the Mediterranean dairy diet resulted in significantly higher HDL (good) cholesterol, lower triglycerides (a fat in the blood) and significantly lower blood pressure in the morning. However, more research is needed to see how a traditional Mediterranean diet compares with a higher dairy Mediterranean diet.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018 Dec 1;108(6):1166-1182. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy207. (Wade AT et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Filled with Health-Promoting Polyphenols

Polyphenols are naturally occurring antioxidants found in many foods including olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and red wine; these foods are also key components of the traditional Mediterranean diet. In this review researchers analyzed the main sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean diet and their potential health impacts. They found that the Mediterranean diet has a unique mix of polyphenols that is associated with decreased obesity; the polyphenols present in the Mediterranean diet may also promote the growth of good bacteria in the gut, which may aid in digestion and have other positive health effects.
Nutrients. 2018 Oct 17;10(10). pii: E1523. doi: 10.3390/nu10101523. (Castro-Barquero S et al)

Eating Omega-3 Fatty Acids While Pregnant May Reduce Pre-Term Births

Not many women eat fish frequently during pregnancy, but perhaps they should. In a rigorous Cochrane review of 70 randomized controlled trials (involving 19,927 women), scientists found that getting more omega-3 fatty acids (from food, like seafood, or supplements) may reduce the incidence of pre-term birth and low birthweight in babies.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018 Nov 15;11:CD003402. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003402.pub3. (Middleton P et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Brain Health in Adults at Risk for Alzheimer's

Numerous studies have observed a link between the Mediterranean Diet and slower cognitive decline, but researchers wonder how this might relate to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. To better understand diet’s relationship with Alzheimer’s pathology, scientists analyzed the eating patterns and buildup of Aβ (small pieces of protein that can accumulate in the brain, potentially creating plaques and causing brain cells to be destroyed) in 77 older adults who were already on the path to Alzheimer’s disease (by being flagged as being Aβ accumulators). Those most closing following a Mediterranean diet had significantly less Aβ accumulation over time, with fruit standing out as a particularly beneficial food. The authors suggest that improving your Mediterranean diet score by just 1 point (0-9 point scale) may result in a 20% decrease in Aβ accumulation over 1 year, and up to a 60% decrease over 3 years.
Translational Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 30;8(1):238. doi: 10.1038/s41398-018-0293-5. (Rainey-Smith SR et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with 33% Lower Risk of Depression

Scientists are eager to learn more about the link between a healthy diet and a healthy mind. In this study, researchers analyzed existing observational studies between healthy diets (measured by the Mediterranean Diet score, the Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Inflammatory Index, and related scoring systems) and depression. According to the researchers, “the most compelling evidence was found for the Mediterranean diet and incident depression.” Specifically, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were 33% less likely to develop incident depression than those not following a Mediterranean diet. People whose diets scored well on some of the other diet scores also tended to have a lower risk of depression, though there were fewer studies using those indices.
Molecular Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 26. doi: 10.1038/s41380-018-0237-8. [Epub ahead of print] (Lassale C et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with 22% Lower Risk of Stroke in Women

The Mediterranean diet has been well studied for its link to stroke prevention, but researchers wonder how the effects may differ between different types of patients. In this study, scientists monitored the eating patterns and health status of 23,232 white Europeans in the UK. After 17 years, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet had a 17% lower risk of stroke. However, the findings seem to be driven primarily by women. Women who most closely followed a Mediterranean diet had a 22% lower risk of stroke, while the trend towards lower risk in men was not statistically significant. Additionally, the findings were stronger in people who had a higher risk of heart disease (due to family history or other factors).
Stroke. 2018 Sept 20. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.020258. [Epub ahead of print.] (Paterson KE et al.)

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