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Mediterranean Diet in Adulthood Linked with Healthier Brain in Midlife

While there is much to learn about preventing dementia and cognitive decline, the Mediterranean diet seems to show promise in protecting brain health across the lifespan. In this study, scientists analyzed the eating habits of 2,621 adults at ages 25, 32, and 45 years, then analyzed their brain function at ages 50 and 55. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet had a 46% lower risk of having poor cognitive function. Those whose diets scored highly on the A Priori Diet Quality Score (a measure of how nutritious your diet is) also had a reduced risk of poor cognitive function, while the DASH diet (a healthy diet to prevent high blood pressure) did not show a significant relationship with brain health.
Neurology. 2019 Apr 2;92(14):e1589-e1599. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007243. (McEvoy CT et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Improvements in Cardiodiabesity

“Cardiodiabesity” is an umbrella term which refers to the relationship between obesity, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Researchers analyzed over 50 studies to answer several key questions about the impact of the Mediterranean diet on cardiodiabesity. The researchers found strong evidence that following the Mediterranean diet reduces obesity, blood pressure, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy and at-risk people. They also found moderate evidence that the Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and can reduce the symptoms of type 2 diabetes in diabetics.
Nutrients. 2019 Mar 18;11(3). pii: E655. doi: 10.3390/nu11030655. (Franquesa M. et al)

Mediterranean Diet Has Long History of Health Benefits

Mediterranean diet first rose to prominence in the 1950’s and since that time has become one of the most-studied diets in the world. In this study, researchers summarize the Mediterranean diet’s scientific history and key takeaways, including its benefits for weight loss and the prevention of heart disease and type II diabetes. The Mediterranean diet has also been linked with the possible prevention of certain types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The authors note that the erosion of tradition threatens the Mediterranean diet in its place of birth, and that more populations could benefit from adopting a more Mediterranean inspired diet.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019 Mar 15;16(6). pii:E942. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16060942. (Lăcătușu C-M et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Rates of Obesity; More Research Needed on Korean Diets and Obesity

The Mediterranean diet is a well-studied cultural model of healthy eating, but less is known about other dietary patterns around the world. In this article, researchers analyzed the relationship between obesity and traditional Mediterranean and Korean diets. The researchers found considerable evidence on the Mediterranean diet’s protective effect against obesity. However, there was no significant association between a traditional Korean diet (a higher carb, lower fat diet with rice, vegetables, fish, and moderate amounts of meat, as well as fermented foods) and obesity. The researchers note that more research is needed on traditional Korean diets and their impacts on health, and that the research could be improved with a standard way of measuring and defining Korean diets. The researchers also noted that many of the Korean diets included in this analysis had higher levels of sodium, and lower levels of fruit and dairy, suggesting that healthier alternatives to some Korean dietary patterns may have a more beneficial impact on health.
Journal of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. 2019 Mar;28(1):30-39. doi: 10.7570/jomes.2019.28.1.30. (Choi E et al.)

Mediterranean Diet May Help Prevent Heart Disease

Cochrane reviews are some of the most rigorous reviews in scientific research. In this Cochrane review, researchers analyzed 30 existing randomized controlled trials (the “gold standard” of nutrition research) and 7 ongoing trials of the Mediterranean diet and its impact on heart disease risk. The study found small to moderate evidence for benefits of the Mediterranean diet for preventing heart disease, but note that more research is needed to better understand the benefits, particularly in patients who already have heart disease.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019 Mar 13;3:CD009825. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009825.pub3. (Rees K et al.)

Frequent Olive Oil Consumption May Be Linked with Making Blood Less Likely to Clot

Olive oil is a well-known heart healthy food, and new research sheds light on a potential explanation behind this benefit. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits of 63 obese but otherwise healthy adults, and also analyzed the platelet activity in their blood. (Platelets are the building blocks of blood clots when they stick together.) Those eating olive oil at least once per week had significantly lower platelet activation, indicating that their blood may be less likely to clot. (Note that findings presented at meetings are considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.)
Presentation at American Heart Association’s Epidemiology and Prevention | Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health Scientific Sessions. Houston, TX. March 7, 2019 (Heffron SP et al.)

Mediterranean Diet in Young Adulthood Linked with Healthier Brain in Middle Age

Eat a nutritious diet while you’re young, and your brain may thank you later. Scientists analyzed the diets of 2,621 young adults (average age: 25) and then assessed their brain health 25 & 30 years later (average ages: 50 & 55, respectively). Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet in young adulthood had a significantly lower decline in cognitive function than those not following a Mediterranean diet.
Neurology. 2019 Mar 6. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007243. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007243. [Epub ahead of print] (McEvoy CT et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Bone Mass in Women

A traditional Mediterranean diet includes frequent, but low-to-moderate amounts of dairy products, mostly in the form of artisanal cheeses and yogurts. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits and bone density in 442 pre-menopausal women in Spain. Following a Mediterranean diet was linked with significantly better bone mass.
Nutrients. 2019 Mar 5;11(3). pii: E555. doi: 10.3390/nu11030555. (Pérez-Rey J et al.)

Mediterranean Diet May Improve Athletic Performance

Proper nutrition is increasingly becoming an important aspect of athletic training, and it is easy to see why. In a small study, 11 young adults ran a 5K after 4 days of eating a Mediterranean diet, and after 4 days of eating a typical Western diet. The 5K time after the Mediterranean diet was about 2 minutes faster than the race time after eating a Western diet. However, there were no significant differences in vertical jump height or hand grip strength between the 2 diets.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2019 Feb 13:1-9. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2019.1568322. [Epub ahead of print] (Baker ME et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Bladder Cancer

While there have been several studies investigating the link between specific foods or food groups and the risk of bladder cancer, studies investigating overall diet patterns are limited. In this analysis, researchers pooled data from 13 studies investigating the link between diet and bladder cancer. They analyzed the diet of over 600,000 participants to evaluate how closely the participants follow the Mediterranean diet. The researchers found that participants who most closely followed the Mediterranean diet had a significantly lower risk of bladder cancer than those who did not follow the diet. The researchers believe that the high intake of plant-based foods and olive oil in the Mediterranean diet may have a protective effect against bladder cancer due to the antioxidants and vitamins present in these foods.
European Journal of Nutrition. 2019 Feb 8. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-01907-8. (Witlox WJA, et al)

Combining Statins with Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Death from Heart Disease

Statins are a type of cholesterol lowering medication often prescribed to patients with heart disease. To see how diet might impact the effectiveness of statins, researchers analyzed the eating habits and health outcomes of 1,180 older adults with heart disease for 8 years. Those most closely following a Mediterranean Diet were 30% less likely to die from heart disease over the study period. However, statins only reduced heart disease death risk when taken in combination with the Mediterranean diet. Furthermore, the patients taking statins in combination with a Mediterranean diet had a 50% lower risk of dying of heart disease than those just using one approach (diet or medicine). The researchers suspect that this synergistic effect may be due to the anti-inflammatory effects of the Mediterranean Diet. 
International Journal of Cardiology.  2019 Feb 1;276:248-254. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.11.117. (Bonaccio M et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the nervous system that can cause stiffness and tremors, and make movement difficult. In a study of 1,731 elderly adults, those most closely following a Mediterranean Diet had a 21% lower probability of showing early signs of Parkinson’s Disease (prodromal Parkinson’s disease) than those not following a Mediterranean diet.
Movement Disorders. 2019 Jan;34(1):48-57. doi: 10.1002/mds.27489. (Maraki MI et al.)

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