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Tomato Sofrito Linked with Lower Inflammation

Sofrito is a sauce of tomatoes, onion, and olive oil, commonly eaten in Mediterranean cuisine. In a recent study, researchers investigated to potential health benefits of this sauce. A group of 22 healthy men were fed sofrito after following a low-antioxidant and tomato-free diet; blood and urine samples were taken before and after eating the sofrito. The researchers found a significant increase in the amount of carotenoids and polyphenols (healthy compounds with antioxidant properties) in the 24 hours after eating the sofrito; they also found that inflammation was significantly lower following the intervention. This result suggests that consumption of sofrito, a staple of the Mediterranean diet, may have anti-inflammatory health benefits.
Nutrients.  2019 Apr 15;11(4). pii: E851. doi: 10.3390/nu11040851. (Hurtado-Barroso S, et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Improvements in Cardiodiabesity

“Cardiodiabesity” is an umbrella term which refers to the relationship between obesity, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Researchers analyzed over 50 studies to answer several key questions about the impact of the Mediterranean diet on cardiodiabesity. The researchers found strong evidence that following the Mediterranean diet reduces obesity, blood pressure, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy and at-risk people. They also found moderate evidence that the Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and can reduce the symptoms of type 2 diabetes in diabetics.
Nutrients. 2019 Mar 18;11(3). pii: E655. doi: 10.3390/nu11030655. (Franquesa M. et al)

Mediterranean Diet Has Long History of Health Benefits

Mediterranean diet first rose to prominence in the 1950’s and since that time has become one of the most-studied diets in the world. In this study, researchers summarize the Mediterranean diet’s scientific history and key takeaways, including its benefits for weight loss and the prevention of heart disease and type II diabetes. The Mediterranean diet has also been linked with the possible prevention of certain types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The authors note that the erosion of tradition threatens the Mediterranean diet in its place of birth, and that more populations could benefit from adopting a more Mediterranean inspired diet.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019 Mar 15;16(6). pii:E942. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16060942. (Lăcătușu C-M et al.)

Mediterranean Diet May Help Prevent Heart Disease

Cochrane reviews are some of the most rigorous reviews in scientific research. In this Cochrane review, researchers analyzed 30 existing randomized controlled trials (the “gold standard” of nutrition research) and 7 ongoing trials of the Mediterranean diet and its impact on heart disease risk. The study found small to moderate evidence for benefits of the Mediterranean diet for preventing heart disease, but note that more research is needed to better understand the benefits, particularly in patients who already have heart disease.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019 Mar 13;3:CD009825. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009825.pub3. (Rees K et al.)

Frequent Olive Oil Consumption May Be Linked with Making Blood Less Likely to Clot

Olive oil is a well-known heart healthy food, and new research sheds light on a potential explanation behind this benefit. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits of 63 obese but otherwise healthy adults, and also analyzed the platelet activity in their blood. (Platelets are the building blocks of blood clots when they stick together.) Those eating olive oil at least once per week had significantly lower platelet activation, indicating that their blood may be less likely to clot. (Note that findings presented at meetings are considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.)
Presentation at American Heart Association’s Epidemiology and Prevention | Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health Scientific Sessions. Houston, TX. March 7, 2019 (Heffron SP et al.)

Combining Statins with Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Death from Heart Disease

Statins are a type of cholesterol lowering medication often prescribed to patients with heart disease. To see how diet might impact the effectiveness of statins, researchers analyzed the eating habits and health outcomes of 1,180 older adults with heart disease for 8 years. Those most closely following a Mediterranean Diet were 30% less likely to die from heart disease over the study period. However, statins only reduced heart disease death risk when taken in combination with the Mediterranean diet. Furthermore, the patients taking statins in combination with a Mediterranean diet had a 50% lower risk of dying of heart disease than those just using one approach (diet or medicine). The researchers suspect that this synergistic effect may be due to the anti-inflammatory effects of the Mediterranean Diet. 
International Journal of Cardiology.  2019 Feb 1;276:248-254. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.11.117. (Bonaccio M et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with ¼ Lower Heart Disease Risk in Women

The Mediterranean diet is closely linked with heart health, and researchers want to learn more about the underlying mechanisms behind this connection. In this study researchers analyzed the diet and health outcomes of 25,994 women for 12 years. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were 28% less likely to develop heart disease than those not following a Mediterranean diet. Even those who were only moderately following a Mediterranean diet had a 23% lower risk of heart disease, indicating that even small lifestyle changes can have a meaningful impact on health. The researchers suspect that part of the heart health benefits may be related to lower inflammation, as women most closely following the Mediterranean diet had significantly lower levels of biomarkers of inflammation. Other factors shown to affect the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and heart health are the Mediterranean diet’s links to blood sugar management, BMI, blood pressure, and cholesterol.
JAMA Network Open. 2018 Dec 7;1(8):e185708. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5708 (Ahmad S et al.)

Mediterranean Diet with Dairy May Help with Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

In a traditional Mediterranean diet, dairy was eaten often, but in small amounts (typically fermented dairy products, like artisanal cheese and Greek yogurt). Researchers wonder if a Mediterranean diet with slightly more dairy might still offer some benefits, so they randomly assigned 41 adults at risk of heart disease to a Mediterranean diet with 3-4 servings of dairy per day, or a low fat diet. Compared to a low fat diet, the Mediterranean dairy diet resulted in significantly higher HDL (good) cholesterol, lower triglycerides (a fat in the blood) and significantly lower blood pressure in the morning. However, more research is needed to see how a traditional Mediterranean diet compares with a higher dairy Mediterranean diet.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018 Dec 1;108(6):1166-1182. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy207. (Wade AT et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Health in People with Type 2 Diabetes

The positive effects of the Mediterranean Diet are well-known, but more research is needed on the effects of the diet in people with type 2 diabetes. In this study, researchers looked at the diets of over 2,000 people with type 2 diabetes. Those who more closely followed the Mediterranean Diet had lower BMIs, blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), blood pressure, inflammation, and better blood sugar control than those who did not. Researchers also found that each part of the Mediterranean Diet provided different benefits- eating more fish was associated with lower triglycerides while eating more vegetables was associated with better blood pressure. In other words, the overall Mediterranean Diet pattern is greater than the sum of its parts, and following the Mediterranean Diet may offer big benefits to people with type 2 diabetes.
Nutrients. 2018 Aug 10;10(8). pii: E1067. doi: 10.3390/nu10081067. (Vitale M et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Less Severe Psoriasis

Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease that causes itchy rashes on the skin. Since the Mediterranean diet has been known to lower inflammation, researchers wonder whether it may also help with psoriasis. In an online survey, researchers analyzed the eating habits of 35,735 French adults, and also surveyed them about psoriasis. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were 22-29% less likely to report having severe psoriasis than those not following a Mediterranean diet. The researchers concluded that “the Mediterranean diet may slow the progression of psoriasis.”
JAMA Dermatology. 2018 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print.] (Phan C et al.)

Med Diet Linked with Less Death, Heart Attacks in People with History of Heart Disease

Even if you already have heart disease, it’s never too late to improve your health. Researchers analyzed the eating habits and health status of 3,562 adults with heart disease, to see how different eating patterns relate to further health complications down the road (like death or heart attacks). Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were 20% less likely to die from all causes and 22% less likely to have a cardiovascular event (like a heart attack) during the 7-year follow up. On the other hand, a “Southern Diet” (lots of added fats, fried food, eggs, organ meats, processed meats, and sweetened beverages) was linked with a higher risk of death from all causes during the 7-year follow up. 
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2018 Jul 12;7(14). pii: e008078. (Shikany JM et al.)

Mediterranean Diet May Be Linked with Fewer Deaths Related to Air Pollution

Air pollution is a concern in many countries around the world, so researchers wonder whether a healthy diet may offset some of these risks. To test this theory, researchers followed more than half a million people across 6 states in the US, estimating their exposure to air pollutants and assessing their eating patterns. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were significantly less likely to die from all causes and heart disease specifically over the 17-year study period than those not following a Mediterranean diet, even at the same level of air pollution exposure. The researchers suspect that the antioxidants in the healthy foods of the Mediterranean diet may play a role in this relationship. (Note that findings presented at meetings are typically viewed as preliminary until they’ve been published in a peer-reviewed journal.)
Presented at the American Thoracic Society International Conference. San Diego, California. May 21, 2018

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