Search Health Studies

Search Results

Traditional Latin American Diet Linked with Lower Blood Pressure

As people abandon their traditional diets for a Western diet of fast food and sugary treats, nutrition is often compromised. In this study, researchers analyzed the diets and blood pressure readings of 4,626 people living in the Southern Cone of Latin America (Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay). Two common dietary patterns emerged: a traditional diet based on fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, fish, seafood, and nuts; and a Western diet based on red and processed meat, dressings, sweets, snacks, and refined grains. Those most closely following a traditional Latin American diet were significantly more likely to have lower blood pressure than those following a Western diet.
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2021 Oct 7;S0939-4753(21)00437-3. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2021.08.048. (Defagó M D et al.)

Eating Traditional Mexican Foods Linked with More Sleep, Less Snoring

As people abandon traditional diets for sugary, fatty Western diets, health can suffer, so researchers wonder if traditional eating might be related to sleep health as well. In a study of 100 Mexican American adults in Arizona, those who reported eating traditional Mexican foods more often were more likely to get 1.41 more hours of sleep per night and were less likely to report snoring than those who don’t eat traditional Mexican foods as often. However, eating traditional Mexican foods was not related to sleep quality, insomnia, or sleepiness.
BMC Nutrition. 2021 Aug 23;7(1):53. doi: 10.1186/s40795-021-00452-0. Ghani SB et al.)

Whole Grain Intake in Latin America Falls Short of Recommendations

Dietary guidelines around the world recommend making more of our grains whole, and researchers wonder if people in different countries are meeting these goals. In a study of 9,128 people across eight Latin American countries, the average person was eating less than one full serving (only 14.7 grams) of whole grain foods per day. Women and older adults were more likely to eat more whole grains, while people with lower incomes were less likely to eat more whole grains. The most commonly eaten whole grains in the survey were oatmeal, masa harina, whole wheat bread, corn chips, and wheat crackers.
European Journal of Nutrition. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1007/s00394-021-02635-8.

Church-Based Obesity Interventions May Help Improve Health

Faith-based institutions, including churches, can be great places to support people in their journey toward a healthier lifestyle. In a review of 43 articles on church-based obesity interventions, 81% of the studies reported significant improvements, although the effect sizes were small. Most of the studies were comprised of African American women, so more research is needed on the impact of church-based obesity interventions among other groups, such as men of color and Latinos. The authors conclude that “church-based interventions to address obesity will have greater impact if they consider the diversity among populations burdened by this condition and develop programs that are tailored to these different populations.”
Nutrition Reviews. 2019 Sep 20. pii: nuz046. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz046. (Flórez KR et al.)

Racial & Ethnic Minorities Carry Disproportionate Burden of Diabetes at Lower BMI

Being heavier for our stature (as measured by BMI) puts us at a higher risk of diabetes. In this study, researchers analyzed the prevalence of diabetes in nearly 5 million people. Hispanics, Asians, and Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders who were overweight had the same diabetes risk as whites, blacks, and Native Americans who were in the most obese tier (class 4 obesity). Further, they found that the link between BMI and diabetes is strongest in whites and lowest in blacks, indicating that other factors outside of overweight/obesity may increase diabetes risk in racial and ethnic minorities.
Diabetes Care.  2019 Sep 19. pii: dc190532. doi: 10.2337/dc19-0532. [Epub ahead of print] (Zhu Y et al.)

Tomato Sofrito Linked with Lower Inflammation

Sofrito is a sauce of tomatoes, onion, and olive oil, commonly eaten in Mediterranean cuisine. In a recent study, researchers investigated to potential health benefits of this sauce. A group of 22 healthy men were fed sofrito after following a low-antioxidant and tomato-free diet; blood and urine samples were taken before and after eating the sofrito. The researchers found a significant increase in the amount of carotenoids and polyphenols (healthy compounds with antioxidant properties) in the 24 hours after eating the sofrito; they also found that inflammation was significantly lower following the intervention. This result suggests that consumption of sofrito, a staple of the Mediterranean diet, may have anti-inflammatory health benefits.
Nutrients.  2019 Apr 15;11(4). pii: E851. doi: 10.3390/nu11040851. (Hurtado-Barroso S, et al.)

Culturally Relevant Foods are Important in Nutrition Assistance Programs

As part of a nutrition assistance program, 277 Mexican-heritage households in California’s Central Valley were given fruit and vegetable vouchers to spend at supermarkets. Researchers analyzed which fruits and vegetables were purchased with the vouchers to look for patterns. Fruits tended to be the most popular subgroup, while dark green and red-orange vegetables were less popular. They also found that “many of the most frequently purchased items were of cultural significance (tomatillo, chayote, chili/jalapeno pepper, and Mexican squash).” The researchers conclude that “food assistance programs should continue to include culturally important foods and be aware of the cultural values of their participants.”
Journal of Community Health. 2017 Oct;42(5):942-948. (Hanbury MM et al.)

Slow Cooking Sofrito with Onion Helps Improve Antioxidant Capacity

Nutrition researchers are shedding light on synergies that home cooks have intuitively known for centuries: that traditional food pairings and preparations can offer even greater benefits than the ingredients by themselves. Sofrito, a delicious tomato-based puree used in several Latin American, Caribbean, and Spanish soups, stews, and sauces, is one such example of a healthy food tradition. Simmering the sofrito slowly, over a longer period of time, and including an onion in the recipe are not just important for the development of flavor — researchers in Spain found that these steps actually improve the antioxidant capacity and bioavailability of the lycopene, a healthy plant compound found in tomatoes.
Food Research International. 2017 January 11. [Epub before print.] (Rinaldi de Alvarenga JF et al.)

Pulses May Help Aid Weight Loss

Dietary changes are a key target in obesity prevention programs, so many foods are being studied for their affect on body weight. To see if eating more pulses (the food group that includes beans, peas, lentils, and chickpeas) might help reduce obesity, researchers analyzed 21 randomized control trials looking at pulses’ role in weight, body fat, and waist circumference in overweight and obese adults. Diets that included dietary pulses did not significantly reduce waist circumference. There was a trend in reduction of body fat (-0.34%), but it was not significant as well. Overall, the researchers found that those eating about 1 serving of pulses per day lost, on average, about 0.75 pounds over six weeks. Not surprisingly, results were stronger in weight loss diets (3.8 pounds over 6 weeks) than weight maintenance diets (0.6 pounds over 6 weeks). Although the weight loss was small, this study indicates that a modest serving of pulses may help produce weight loss, even without cutting calories.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2016 Mar 30. [Epub Ahead of Print] (Kim SJ et al.)

Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Program Improves Health of Hispanic Americans with Diabetes

Heritage is a powerful motivator for change, as healthy habits are most sustainable when they are culturally relevant, with the support  of friends and family. In this study, researchers recruited 36 adults with diabetes and their families to an 8-week culturally tailored diabetes education program (which integrated cultural foods, beliefs, and values) taught in Spanish. One month after the program ended, the participants showed significant improvements in systolic blood pressure (the top number in your blood pressure reading), fruit and vegetable intake, diabetes knowledge, and dietary management. Their family members also benefited from the program, with significant improvements in BMI and diabetes knowledge.
The Diabetes Educator. 2016 Mar 8. [Epub ahead of print.] (Hu J et al.)

Loss of Traditional Mexican Diet Linked with Poor Nutrition

Obesity prevalence among U.S. immigrant children, particularly those from Mexico, is high, so researchers are trying to understand how diet plays a role. Pennsylvania researchers analyzed the diet quality of Mexican immigrant mothers and their children across multiple generations. They found that first generation American children were more likely to abandon their traditional Mexican diet for more American foods (like fast food and highly processed foods), significantly lowering the nutritional quality of their diet. This suggests that encouraging families to cook with traditional ingredients, and encouraging retailers and farms to offer these traditional ingredients, may be a good strategy to improve the health of immigrant populations.
Social Science & Medicine. 2015 Dec 21;150:212-220. (Dondero M et al.)

Traditional Mexican Diet Linked with Better Inflammation, Blood Sugar Control

Researchers in Seattle created a Mexican Diet Score to assess how traditional Mexican diets are related to insulin resistance and inflammation. Higher Mexican Diet Scores indicate eating more traditional Mexican foods, such as corn tortillas, beans, soup, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and Mexican cheese, and lower levels of added sugars, refined grains, and added fats. In a study of nearly 500 healthy, post-menopausal women of Mexican descent, the researchers found that those most closely following a traditional Mexican diet had 23% lower levels of hsCRP (a measure of inflammation), and 15% lower insulin levels (indicating healthy blood sugar regulation) than those not following a traditional Mexican diet. In the overweight and obese women, a low Mexican diet score was also linked with higher insulin resistance. The researchers concluded that “greater adherence to traditional Mexican diets… could be beneficial in reducing the risk of obesity-related systemic inflammation and insulin resistance for women of Mexican descent.”
The Journal of Nutrition. 2015 Dec;145(12):2732-40. (Santiago-Torres M et al.)

Cheese Linked with Positive Microbiome Changes & Markers of Disease Prevention

Dairy foods are most often prized for their calcium content, but new research reveals that changes to the gut microbiome, especially from eating fermented dairy products, like cheese, might help explain the “French Paradox,” the phenomenon in which traditional cheeses are linked with low rates of heart disease. In a small study to investigate the protective effect of dairy foods, Danish scientists randomly assigned 15 healthy men to one of three diets for two weeks: a diet with lots of partly skim (1.5%) milk, a diet with lots of semi-hard cow’s cheese, or a control diet with butter, but no other dairy products. Both the milk and cheese diets had the same amount of calcium per day (1.7g). The men rotated through each diet, with a two-week washout period in between each new diet group. Compared to the control diet, both the cheese and milk diets were associated with significantly lower production of TMAO, a compound that is thought to be a marker of heart disease risk. The researchers also found that “dairy consumption, especially cheese, can beneficially modify the gut microbiota to increase SFCA levels.” SFCAs (short chain fatty acids) are compounds produced by gut bacteria that are linked with many health promoting effects, such as lower risk of diabetes, heart disease, and inflammatory diseases.  
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2015 Mar 18;63(10):2830-9 (Zheng H et al).

Avocados Help Lower Cholesterol

Avocados are the perfect example of how delicious healthy eating can be! Researchers assigned 45 overweight and obese adults to one of three cholesterol lowering diets: a lower fat (24% calories from fat) diet, a moderate fat (34% calories from fat) diet with one avocado per day, and a moderate fat (34% calories from fat) diet with sunflower and canola oils. Those on the avocado diet lowered their “bad cholesterol” significantly more than those on the other diets. Additionally, the avocado group was the only group to significantly decrease LDL particle number (a risk factor for heart disease) and improve the ratio of LDL to HDL (the gap between “bad” and “good” cholesterol). 
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015 Jan 7 (Wang L et al.).

Traditional Latin American Diet May Help Explain the Hispanic Paradox

Studies show that Hispanics live longer and have lower rates of heart disease than Non Hispanic Whites, despite a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and mortality. This phenomenon has been dubbed the “Hispanic Paradox.” In a recent journal article, researchers suggest that the traditional Latin American diet may be a possible explanation for this relationship. Compared to the general U.S. population, Hispanics eat more legumes and fruit, foods known for their antioxidant activity and heart healthy properties. According to the researchers, another lifestyle factor that may have a protective effect on health is the high level of social and familial support in the Latin American culture.  
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2014 September 4. Pii: S0033-0620(14)00133-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Tailored Nutrition Education May Help Latin American Community Purchase Healthier Foods

Diabetes disproportionally affects the Latin American community, so researchers are eager to see which programs are most effective at improving nutrition and preventing chronic disease. In this study of 20 Spanish-speaking, low-income families, Boston researchers led an interactive nutrition education program (which included a supermarket tour and 3-5 home visits). Upon analyzing grocery receipts before and after the program, the researchers found that total calories and calories per dollar were lower than before the intervention, challenging the argument that healthy foods are too expensive. The researchers conclude that “focusing on food shopping practices is an important area within nutrition education among low-income, Spanish-speaking individuals,” and that “the current healthcare system could benefit from family- and community-based interventions.”
American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013 Mar;44(3 Suppl 3):S267-73. (Cortes DE et al.)

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity in Costa Rica

Commercially available sugar-sweetened beverages have not been traditionally consumed as part of the Costa Rican diet.  Because of the rising obesity rates in Latin American countries, researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health designed a study to determine the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity in Hispanic adults in Costa Rica.  The study involved more than 2000 adults and compared sugar-sweetened beverage consumption to BMI and skinfold thickness.  Overall, higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased measures of adiposity and increased BMI in Costa Rican adults.
Public Health Nutrition, August 2012; 15(8): 1347-1354 (Rhee J et al.)

Binge Eating Disorder Increases with Migration

Scientists at the Harvard School of Public Health studied US and Mexican data on 2268 people. They divided the people into six groups, from Mexicans with no migrant family members all the way to second generation Mexican-Americans, and found that binge eating disorder affected 1.6% in Mexico and 2.2% in the U.S. They concluded that “migration from Mexico to the U.S. is associated with an increased risk” for Binge Eating Disorder.
Journal of Psychiatric Research. January 2012; 46(1):31-7. (Swanson et al.)

Obese Eat Fewer Fruits and Vegetables

The Health is Power (HIP) study was conducted in order to increase physical activity and improve the dietary habits in African American and Hispanic women in Texas.  HIP enrolled more than 400 women in a 5-year, multi-site study.  They found that obese women did not meet physical activity guidelines and consumed significantly fewer fruits and vegetables as compared to normal weight women regardless of ethnicity.
Journal of Community Health, December 2011; (Lee R et al.)

Mexican Diet Largely Lost in One Generation

Researchers at the University of North Carolina compared the diets of 5678 Mexicans, 1488 Mexican Americans born in Mexico, 3654 Mexican Americans born in the U.S., and 5473 non-Hispanic Americans. They found that the three groups in the U.S. ate more saturated fat, sugar, pizza, fries, meat, fish, high-fiber bread and low-fat milk and less low-fiber bread, tortillas, high-fat milk and Mexican fast food. Although acculturation had both positive and negative food elements, overall calories from unhealthy foods were higher in the U.S. and the influence of the Mexican diet was lost in one generation.
The Journal of Nutrition. October 2011; 141(10):1898-906. (Batis et al.)

Mexican-American Diets and Duration Living in US

Literature suggests that increased duration of residence in the US causes Mexican-Americans to adopt a more “Western” diet, which has been associated with weight gain and elevated risk of chronic disease.  Northeastern University researchers conducted a study to determine the effect of duration of residence and nativity in the US on the diet patterns of Mexican-Americans.  Using the Food Frequency Questionnaire data from 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the study compared the healthfulness of the diet patterns of US born and Mexican born Mexican-Americans.  It concluded that Mexican Americans generally do not adhere to healthy dietary practices and have dietary patterns that are associated with higher mean intakes of fat, carbohydrates and sugars.  This was especially true for US born Mexican Americans.
Journal of the American Dietetics Association, October 2011; 111:1563-1569 (Sofianou A et al.)

Sleep Quality Drops with Latino Acculturation

Sleep duration and quality can affect health, so scientists at the Cleveland Clinic set out to compare sleep patterns in 1046 Mexican Americans (620 born in Mexico and the rest in the U.S.) with 5160 non Hispanic Americans. The Mexico-born immigrants had the healthiest sleep patterns, and increased acculturation (measured by English spoken at home rather than Spanish) correlated to an increased risk of poor sleep.
Sleep. August 1, 2011; 34(8):1021-31 (Seicean et al.)

Body Image Among Latinas and African-American Women

University of Houston researchers surveyed 262 African American women and 148 Latinas to determine their actual weight and their perceived weight. In this group of middle-aged (mean 45.2 yrs), educated (44% college graduates) and obese (mean BMI 34.6) women, most women did not perceive normal weight as desirable. In fact, of those who were normal weight, 73.9% of African-Americans and 42.9% of Latinas desired to be obese.
Ethnicity and Disease. Summer 2011; 21(3):281-7. (Mama et. al.)

Latinas' Dietary Preferences and Beliefs on Healthy Foods

Dietary beliefs and preferences differ drastically across ethnic groups.  Smith College researchers conducted a study to determine the preferences and beliefs regarding healthy foods in 345 female Hispanic immigrants living in the New York City area.  The study found that the participants generally believed that their diets were healthier in their countries of origin where they were able to consume fresher foods free of processing and preservatives.  The participants indicated that they are unable to consume the foods they prefer in the United States due to the food environment here and attribute their weight gain or illness to their dietary changes.
Social Science and Medicine, July 2011; 73:13-21 (Park Y et al.)

 

Health Benefits of Traditional Latin American Diets

Brazilian scientists carried out a comprehensive review of historic diets native to different parts of Central and South America, and of recent research that sheds light on their protective effects. Benefits of traditional, largely plant-based Latino diets included lower cholesterol, lower diabetes risk, lower blood pressure, and other benefits.
Clinics, 2010; 65(1):1049-54 (Navarro et al.)

Less Acculturated Latinos Enjoy Better Diets

It is known that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process, as Latino immigrants adopt the habits of their new culture.  A meta-analysis was conducted to review the literature available on the effect of acculturation on the Latino diet.  The analysis concluded that there was no relationship between acculturation and dietary fat intake or percent energy from fat, despite evidence that fat-related behaviors seem to differ between those who are less or more acculturated.  It also concluded that less acculturated Latin Americans consumed more fruit, rice, beans, and less sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages than more acculturated Latin Americans.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association, August 2008; 108:1330-1344 (Ayala G et al.)

Fruits, Vegetables, Fiber Decline with Latina Acculturation

A cross-sectional study conducted by the Population Research Center in Austin, Texas used data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey and its Cancer Control Module to examine the association of diet with country of birth and language acculturation among 1,245 non-pregnant women of Mexican descent living in the US.  The study found that US-born women consumed fewer grams of fiber per day and a larger percentage of energy from fat than Mexican-born women.  Similarly, greater English language use was associated with decreased consumption of fiber. Researchers concluded that English-speaking, US-born women have a greater risk of declining dietary quality compared to Mexican-born women because the latter are more likely to retain some of their cultural (Mexican) eating patterns.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association; March 2008; 108(3):473-80. (Montez et al.)

Diet and Oral Cancer Risk in Brazil

A study conducted by the University of São Paulo examined the association between Brazilian dietary patterns and oral cancer. Dietary data was collected from 366 patients with oral cancer and 469 controls, using a food frequency questionnaire.  Three diet types were identified: “Prudent,” including frequent vegetables, fruit, cheese and poultry; “Traditional,” including rice, beans, pulses, pasta and meat; and “Snacks,” with frequent consumption of bread, butter, salami, cheese, cakes and desserts.  The study concluded that the traditional Brazilian diet consisting of rice and beans plus moderate amounts of meat may confer protection against oral cancer, independently of other risk factors such as alcohol intake and smoking.
Revista de Saude Publica. 2007 Feb;41(1):19-26 (Marchioni et al.)

Studies Compare Pima Indians in U.S. and Mexico

Two independent studies published 12 years apart in the journal Diabetes Care evaluated the possible impact of the environment on the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Arizona’s Pima Indians, a group with the highest reported prevalence of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Data were collected on a population of Pima ancestry living in a remote mountainous location in northwestern Mexico, living a markedly different, “traditional” lifestyle in comparison to the Pima people of Arizona.  In the 1994 study, measurements of weight, height, body fat, blood pressure, plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol and HbA1c were obtained in 19 women and 16 men and compared with Pimas of the same sex, age, and diabetes status living in Arizona.  The study found that Mexican Pimas were lighter and shorter with lower BMIs and lower plasma total cholesterol levels than Arizona Pimas.  Only two women (11%) and one man (6%) had diabetes, contrasting with the expected prevalence of 37% and 54% in female and male Arizona Pimas, respectively. Twelve years later, the 2006 study reflected the same: significantly lower incidences of obesity and diabetes in the populations living in Mexico and leading a traditional lifestyle. The Mexican Pimas also enjoyed higher levels of physical activity than their U.S. Pima counterparts.
Diabetes Care 1994 Sep; 17(9): 1067-74 (Ravussin et al.)
Diabetes Care 2006 Aug; 29(8): 1866-71 (Schulz et al.)

More Beans, Fewer Heart Attacks

When traditional diets are abandoned, health often declines –as a Harvard School of Public Health study found in Costa Rica. Researchers matched 2119 people who had suffered a first acute myocardial infarction with a similar control group and assessed their diets. After adjusting for many factors, they found that consumption of 1 serving or more of dried beans daily was associated with a 38% lower risk of heart attack.
The Journal of Nutrition, July 2005; 135(7):1770-5 (Kabagambe et al.)

Nutrition Transition in Mexico and Other Latino Countries

 

In the past, the most common nutritional problem in Latin American countries was undernutrition.  However, these countries have recently undergone a nutritional transition characterized by an increase in energy-dense diets and increase in the prevalence of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCCD) such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure.  Researchers reviewed the available literature to determine the characteristics of the nutrition transition with emphasis in data from Mexico, Brazil, and Chile.  They found that some countries in Latin America like Brazil, Mexico and Chile are suffering from increased prevalence of overweight, obesity and NCCD related to dietary changes such as increased consumption of higher energy-dense processed foods and decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables.  
International Life Sciences Institute, July 2004; 62(7)S149-S157 (Rivera J et al.)

Diets of Latin-American and African-American Women

University of Hawaii researchers surveyed 271 African-American women and 234 Latin-American women, and assessed their diets. They found that the African-American women consumed more calories and more fat, while the Latino women consumed more carbohydrates and more fiber. While the Latino women weighed less, they were perceived themselves as heavier and reported “greater body image dissatisfaction.”
Obesity Research. April 2004; 12(4):652-60 (Sánchez-Johnsen et al.)

More Acculturation, Fewer Fruits and Vegetables

Acculturation is the extent to which mainstream customs, beliefs, and practices are adopted by immigrants.  Researchers in Washington State recruited 1,689 adult Hispanic and non-Hispanic participants to investigate whether acculturation is a predictor of fruit, vegetable, and fat intake among Hispanics.  Using the National 5-A Day for Better Health program dietary assessment instruments, researchers determined that highly acculturated Hispanics in Washington State consume significantly fewer fruits and vegetables than less acculturated Hispanics. 
Journal of the American Dietetics Association, January 2004; 104:51-57 (Neuhouser M et al.) 

Colon Cancer Increases as Mexican Diet Fades

Researchers in Los Angeles examined whether the changing incidence of colorectal cancer in their city’s Mexican-American population was due to changes in dietary practices in this group.  Cancer incidence and dietary intake data were obtained for over 35,000 Latinos of Mexican national origin – the largest sample of Mexican-origin Latinos of any such study in the US.  The incidence of colorectal cancer saw the greatest increase between the first and second generations.  Nearly all dietary changes due to acculturation also occurred between the first and second generations.  These findings suggest an association between colorectal cancer risk and certain dietary components. Higher intakes of alcohol and refined carbohydrates were major risk factors, and lower consumption of vegetables was a protective factor.
Nutrition and Cancer 2003, Volume 45, Issue 2 (Monroe et al.)

Acculturation and Obesity in Hispanic Adolescents

Between first and second generation US immigrants, a striking increase in overweight and obesity occurs.  A study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health set out to determine the underlying factors that cause this phenomenon.  More than 8,600 adolescents of varying ethnicity were assessed for overweight and several factors including diet.  Researchers concluded that immigrant adolescents are likely to be influenced by the “obesigenic” environment of the US, including sedentary lifestyles, large portion sizes, heavy advertising of high-fat, energy-dense foods, and mass media.  Lifestyle differences between foreign- and US-born Hispanic adolescent immigrants are likely to underlie the striking increase in overweight between first and subsequent generations of US residence.
Social Science & Medicine, April 2003; 57:2023–2034 (Gordon-Larsena P et al.)

Dietary Trends in Latin-American Populations

In an effort to track the rise in chronic disease among people who move away from their traditional diets, scientists at Tufts University synthesized data about diets and health from many sources. They found a close association between dietary change (starting with the rich) and the health impacts of a more processed, energy-dense diet.
Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2003; 19 suppl 1:S87-99. (Bermudez et al.)

Obesity and the Nutrition Transition

Reviewing data from around the world, Barry Popkin assessed associations between activity, food intake, and health over time and found “a marked shift in the structure of the diet.” Not only are dietary changes tied to increases in obesity, but they are occurring so rapidly that both malnutrition and obesity are co-existing in the same households.
The Journal of Nutrition. March 2001; 131(3):871S-873S (Popkin)

Traditional High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Protects Against

A study from Oregon Health Services University examined the impact that a transition to a more ‘affluent’ diet had on thirteen Tarahumara Indians (five women and eight men).  Tarahumara Indians are a Mexican people traditionally consuming a low-fat, high-fiber diet and with very low incidence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  The thirteen subjects were fed their traditional diet (2700 kcal per day) for one week and were then fed a diet typical of affluent societies, which contained excessive calories (4100 kcal per day), total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol for five weeks.  After five weeks of consuming the affluent diet, the subjects’ mean cholesterol levels increased by 31%, and plasma triglyceride levels also increased by 18%.
New England Journal of Medicine 1991 Dec 12;325(24):1704-8. (McMurry et al.)