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Mediterranean Diet with Olive Oil May Delay Need for Meds in People with Type 2 Diabetes

People with diabetes often need to control their blood sugar using injectable or oral medications, such as insulin. In this study, researchers followed 3,230 people with type 2 diabetes who had been randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean diet with olive oil, a Mediterranean diet with nuts, or a low-fat control diet, and analyzed how the patients managed their blood sugar. Those in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil plan were significantly less likely to need new blood-sugar lowering medications at the 3-year and 5-year follow-up than the low-fat control group. The benefit of the Mediterranean diet with nuts group was not strong enough to be statistically significant. However, it should be noted that 22% of calories in the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil group came from olive oil, while only 8% of the calories in the Mediterranean diet plus nuts group came from nuts.
Diabetes Care. 2019 Aug;42(8):1390-1397. doi: 10.2337/dc18-2475. (Basterra-Gortari FJ et al.)

Mediterranean Diet During Pregnancy Linked with Lower Risk of Diabetes During Pregnancy

Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that develops in pregnant women, and if left untreated, it can pose risks for birth complications down the road. In this study, researchers randomly assigned participants to either follow a Mediterranean diet (starting at 18-weeks pregnant) or receive their routine care. Those following a Mediterranean diet were 35% less likely to develop gestational diabetes. However, there was no significant relationship detected between the Mediterranean diet and other maternal or child outcomes (such as maternal high blood pressure, still birth, small birth size, or NICU admissions).
PLOS Medicine. 2019 Jul 23;16(7):e1002857. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002857. (Al Wattar BH et al.)

An Overview of Healthy Phenolic Compounds in Foods

Polyphenols are a type of antioxidant that can combat cell damage, and they are also linked with lower inflammation and lower risks of chronic disease. In this review, researchers analyzed the different types of phenols in foods and how they are commonly measured, noting that “phenols are mainly found in vegetable foods in which the Mediterranean Diet is rich.”
Journal of AOAC International. 2019 Jun 14. doi: 10.5740/jaoacint.19-0128. [Epub ahead of print] (Delgado AM et al.)

Mediterranean and Vegetarian Diets Can Improve Cholesterol in People with Type 2 Diabetes

Poor cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease, but dietary approaches can be used to keep cholesterol in check. In this review, researchers analyzed 52 randomized controlled trials (the “gold standard” of nutrition research) encompassing 5,360 people with type 2 diabetes, to determine the relationship between diet and cholesterol. They found that vegetarian diets most effectively reduced LDL (“bad”) cholesterol compared with control diets, and that the Mediterranean diet was the overall most effective diet to treat poor cholesterol, raising HDL (“good”) cholesterol and lowering triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood that is a risk factor for heart disease when elevated).
European Journal of Epidemiology. 2019 Jun 14. doi: 10.1007/s10654-019-00534-1. [Epub ahead of print] (Neuenschwander M et al.)

More Exposure to Nutritious, Bitter Staples of Med Diet May Improve Consumer Acceptability

Many bitter foods, such as green vegetables, contain a wealth of antioxidants and essential vitamins and minerals. In this review, scientists analyzed existing research on consumer opinions of two bitter-tasting, healthful essentials of the Mediterranean diet: extra virgin olive oil and brassicaceae vegetables (the family of vegetables that includes broccoli and arugula). They found the most important factor in influencing someone’s perception of these bitter foods is exposure, meaning the more often someone tries these foods, the more likely they’ll be to like them. They also note that music and certain food pairings can make these bitter foods appear to taste less bitter to consumers. In certain demographics (women and elderly consumers), promoting the healthfulness of these bitter foods can also improve acceptability.
Nutrients. 2019 May 24;11(5). pii: E1164. doi: 10.3390/nu11051164. (Cavallo C et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Cognitive Function in Adults with Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

Healthy diets are known to support brain health in a general population, so researchers wonder if this benefit also extends to patients with diabetes. Scientists analyzed the eating habits, blood sugar control, and brain function in 913 adults, nearly half of whom had type 2 diabetes. In patients who had good blood sugar control, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet significantly improved their cognitive function over the 2-year study. However, the results were not statistically significant in patients without diabetes or patients with poor blood sugar control.
Diabetes Care. 2019 May 23. pii: dc190130. doi: 10.2337/dc19-0130. [Epub ahead of print] (Mattei J et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Longevity

The Mediterranean diet has been associated with longevity since its discovery, so researchers wanted to see if newly-published studies find the same association. In this review, researchers analyzed 29 prospective studies following more than 1.6 million people over several years, and they found that each 2-point increase in Mediterranean Diet adherence was linked with a 10% lower risk of death over the study period, and that this relationship was even stronger in people who lived in the Mediterranean.
Advances in Nutrition. 2019 May 21. pii: nmz041. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmz041. (Soltani S et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Diagnosed Depression

Good food is one of life’s greatest pleasures, and emerging research suggests that certain food choices might ward off depression as well. Researchers analyzed the diets and mental health of 154 older adults in Greece, to see how a Mediterranean diet might relate to depression. Eating a Mediterranean diet was not linked with a change in risk of depressive symptoms. However, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were significantly less likely to be diagnosed with depression. When looking at individual foods, eating more vegetables, more poultry, and less alcohol was also linked with a lower risk of depression. (Note that findings presented at meetings are considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.)
Presentation at American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA. May 19, 2019

Following Mediterranean Diet During Pregnancy Linked with Healthy Outcomes for Mothers and Children

Pregnant mothers have a special opportunity to impact not only their own health, but the health of their babies as well, and researchers wonder what some of the short-term and long-term impacts of maternal diet might be. In this article, researchers analyzed 22 studies of pregnant mothers following a Mediterranean diet. They found that, compared with children of mothers who aren’t following a Mediterranean diet, children of mothers who follow a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy are significantly less likely to have depressive behaviors or aggression, and are significantly less likely to have birth defects (such as dangerous heart defects). Allergic disorders (including eczema and asthma) are less likely in children when mothers follow a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy, and an even stronger association is found when children continue with a Mediterranean diet. The researchers also found benefits for the mothers themselves, as those following a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy were less likely to develop diabetes during pregnancy.
Nutrients. 2019 May 17;11(5). pii: E1098. doi: 10.3390/nu11051098. (Amati F et al.)

High Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for Weight Loss and Waistline

Although it is still widely feared that high fat diets could lead to weight gain, high fat Mediterranean style diets are actually a helpful tool for weight loss. Using data from the republished PREDIMED study (where adults at risk of heart disease were randomly assigned to a low fat diet, a Mediterranean diet with nuts, or a Mediterranean diet with olive oil for nearly 5 years), scientists analyzed the waist circumference and weight of the participants at baseline and again at the end of the study. While all 3,985 participants with follow up data increased their waist size slightly with aging – even as they lost weight – the Mediterranean diet groups had significantly smaller increases in their waistline compared to the low fat control group. Similarly, the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group lost significantly more weight than the low fat group, at nearly 1 pound more, but the greater weight loss seen in the nut group was not statistically significant. The scientists conclude that “the fear of weight gain from high-fat foods need no longer be an obstacle to adherence to a dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet,” and that these results “lend support to not restricting intake of healthy fats in advice for bodyweight maintenance and overall cardiometabolic health.”
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. 2019 May. [Epub ahead of print] (Estruch R et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Improved Quality of Life in Crohn's Disease

Crohn’s Disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that causes stomach pain and severe diarrhea. Diet is a major factor in the management of Crohn’s disease, however there are no international guidelines on diet for the management of this disease. In this study, researchers evaluated the diet, quality of life, disease severity, and inflammation of 86 patients with Chron’s disease. They found that the patients whose Crohn’s disease was in remission had the highest quality of life, and that those patients had a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet. This may be due in part to the high concentration of antioxidants and other nutrients in the Mediterranean diet, which may reduce inflammation and improve the symptoms of Crohn’s disease. This study shows that the Mediterranean diet may play an important role in managing the symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients with Crohn’s disease.
European Journal of Nutrition.  2019 Apr 20. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-01972-z. (Papada E, et al)

Tomato Sofrito Linked with Lower Inflammation

Sofrito is a sauce of tomatoes, onion, and olive oil, commonly eaten in Mediterranean cuisine. In a recent study, researchers investigated to potential health benefits of this sauce. A group of 22 healthy men were fed sofrito after following a low-antioxidant and tomato-free diet; blood and urine samples were taken before and after eating the sofrito. The researchers found a significant increase in the amount of carotenoids and polyphenols (healthy compounds with antioxidant properties) in the 24 hours after eating the sofrito; they also found that inflammation was significantly lower following the intervention. This result suggests that consumption of sofrito, a staple of the Mediterranean diet, may have anti-inflammatory health benefits.
Nutrients.  2019 Apr 15;11(4). pii: E851. doi: 10.3390/nu11040851. (Hurtado-Barroso S, et al.)

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