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Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Memory Decline in Elderly

The Mediterranean diet has long been studied for its link with brain health, and now researchers are starting to understand the mechanisms behind this protective relationship. In a study of 512 older adults (average age 69) who were a mixture of people both with and without a family history of Alzheimer’s, researchers found that more closely following a Mediterranean diet was linked with significantly better memory, larger gray matter volume in the area of the brain related to memory (mediotemporal), and less pTau181 (a predictor of Alzheimer’s progression) and amyloid pathology (misfolded proteins in the brain which are associated with Alzheimer’s progression).
Neurology. 2021 May 5;10.1212/WNL.0000000000012067. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012067.(Ballarini T et al.)

Maternal Mediterranean Diet May Relate to Children’s Weight Later in Life

Childhood obesity is a rising public health concern and a strong predictor of obesity later in life. Previous studies have discovered that mothers’ diets during pregnancy can potentially impact children’s weight and their risks of developing obesity. This study evaluated how mothers’ dietary patterns during pregnancy affect their children’s BMI (body mass index). A total of 1,459 women participated in the study and completed a questionnaire about the food they ate during pregnancy. Their children were followed up for 15 years to measure their weight and height change. The findings showed that children whose mothers had closely followed the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy are more likely to grow faster and have lower BMI than their peers during childhood. However, the researchers cautioned that differences in breastfeeding might partly explain the BMI differences across the groups. Thus, more studies are needed.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2021 Mar 15;nqaa398. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa398. (Monthé-Drèze C et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Slower Prostate Cancer Progression, Better Survival

Many patients diagnosed with prostate cancer don’t need immediate intervention, so strictly monitoring the disease progression is critical. This study collected data from 410 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and measured how closely they were following the Mediterranean Diet. After 36 months of follow-up, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were less likely to have significant disease progression, and were more likely to have a better rate of survival.
Cancer. 2021 Mar 1; 127(5):720-728. doi:10.1002/cncr.33182. (Gregg JR et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with 20% Lower Risk of Dementia

Dementia is an age-related disease causing memory loss and confusion, and over 50 million people suffer from dementia globally. Because there is currently no effective treatment for it, prevention is pivotal. To investigate whether the Mediterranean Diet has a protective effect on dementia, the researchers studied 16,160 middle-aged adults and followed them for over 20 years. Among all the participants, 459 were diagnosed with dementia. When comparing the dietary patterns between those with and without dementia, the researchers found that those most closely following the  Mediterranean diet,  were 20% less likely to develop dementia. However, the results were not statistically significant when looking at Alzheimer’s dementia.
Nutrients. 2021 Feb 22;13(2):700. doi: 10.3390/nu13020700. (Andreu-Reinon ME et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Healthy Gut Microbiota, Possible Lower Risk of Alzheimer’s

There are over 100 trillion microorganisms in the gut, which are thought to play a significant role in various aspects of overall health. In this review article, researchers suggest that the connection between the brain and gut may be associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease because the gut microbiota may induce inflammation throughout the body, potentially provoking cognitive impairment. Recent studies have found that the composition of the gut microbiome significantly differs between those with and without Alzheimer’s disease. Diet also has a strong impact on the gut microbiome, hence affecting the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. In particular, following a Mediterranean diet is associated with a slower cognitive degeneration. On the other hand, the Western diet which contains high added sugar, processed meat, refined grains, and saturated fats is associated with greater inflammation.
Nutrients. 2021 Jan 25;13(2):361. Published 2021 Jan 25. doi:10.3390/nu13020361 (Leblhuber F et al.)

Plant Based Diets Can Lower Blood Pressure

Studies have shown that plant-based diets can help lower blood pressure, but researchers wonder how strict you must be with your vegetarian diet to see results. A systematic review of 41 clinical trials was performed to see how different plant-based diets, including some with low levels of animal products (the Mediterranean, Vegan, Nordic, high-fiber, and high-fruit and vegetable diets) impacted blood pressure. The results showed that even plant-based diet with limited animal products can be effective in reducing high pressure, indicating that even small steps to improve health can make a measurable difference. 
Journal of Hypertension. 2021 Jan;39(1):23-37. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000002604. (Gibbs, J.et al)

Mediterranean Diet Linked to Lower Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common progressive nervous system disorders, and previous studies indicate a potential link between diet and the risk of Parkinson’s disease. In this study, 49,261 middle-aged Swedish women were followed up for an average of 10 years to track their eating habits and whether or not they were diagnosed with Parkinson’s. The researchers found that those most closely following a Mediterranean diet had a significantly lower risk of being diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease, especially among women aged 65 years or older.
Movement Disorders. 2021 Jan;36(1):255-260. doi:10.1002/mds.28314. (Yin W et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Thyroid Health

Our thyroids act as internal thermostats providing our bodies with hormones that help balance our heart, muscle, and digestive function, brain development, and bone maintenance. In this study, researchers analyzed the eating habits and health of 200 people, about half with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease that attacks the thyroid) and half without. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were less likely to have Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Eating more animal foods (like meat) and fewer plant foods (like vegetables) was also linked with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.  However, more research is needed on how diet might impact autoimmune and thyroid health.
Thyroid. 2021 Jan;31(1):96-105. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0299. (Ruggeri RM et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Better Brain Health in Aging

A growing body of research demonstrates the Mediterranean diet’s relationship with healthy aging. This British study focused on 511 individuals whose average age was 79 years old. The scientists collected data on eating habits and brain health from the participants. They found that those who more closely follow a Mediterranean diet are more likely  to have overall better cognitive function, including better memory, visuospatial ability, and verbal ability. Furthermore, the study found that eating more  green leafy vegetables and lessmeat may be linked withbetter cognitive performance. 
Experimental Gerontology. 2020 Dec; 142:111117. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2020.111117. (Corley J et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Less Body Fat, Better Blood Sugar Control

Maintaining a healthy weight and healthy blood sugar control are thought to help prevent chronic diseases down the road. In a study of 142 adults, people who most closely followed a Mediterranean diet were more likely to have less body fat, better fasting blood sugar, lower insulin, and lower triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood). Other measured health differences between those who followed the Mediterranean diet and those who didn’t were not statistically significant.
Postgrad Medical Journal. 2020 Nov 12;postgradmedj-2020-138667. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138667. (Kalkuz S et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

The Mediterranean diet is linked with a lower risk of diabetes, and researchers want to learn more about the mechanisms behind this protective effect. This study followed up a group of 25,317 middle-aged women without diabetes for approximately 20 years. The results indicated that those who strictly follow the Mediterranean diet tend to have a 30% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those who don’t follow a Mediterranean diet. The lower risk of diabetes could be partially explained by better insulin resistance, lower inflammation, and lower cholesterol in the women who followed a Mediterranean diet, and the results were especially strong in people who were overweight at the beginning of the study.
JAMA Network Open. 2020 Nov 2; 3(11):e2025466. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25466 (Ahmad S et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Longer Lives

The secret to longer life just might be in your kitchen. A large study of 5,094 Italian men was conducted over a seven-year period to see how their daily diets and lifestyle habits affected mortality rates. Those most closely following the Mediterranean diet were less likely to die over the study period. Additionally, the researchers also found a significant relationship between lower death risk and eating higher amounts of vegetables, proteins, fats, starch, folic acid, and monounsaturated fats from plant-based sources (mostly from olive oil). On the other hand, animal fats and sugar were linked with a greater risk of death over the study period.
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2020 Sept 24;30(10):1673-1678. doi.10.1016/j.numecd.2020.05.034 (Trevisan M et al.)

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