Search Health Studies

Search Results

Low GI Pasta Meals Can Lead to Weight Loss

Keep the pasta, lose the pounds! Pasta is a low Glycemic Index food, meaning that it doesn’t spike your blood sugar. To see how low glycemic diets with pasta relate to weight, researchers analyzed 32 randomized clinical trial comparisons involving 2,448 adults (who were mostly middle aged and overweight or obese). Compared with high Glycemic Index diets, the low Glycemic Index diets with pasta (about three ½ cup servings per week) were linked with modest weight loss (0.63 kg, or 1.4 pounds), even without cutting calories.
BMJ. 2018 April 4;8(3):1-13. (Chiavaroli L et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Healthier Bones and Muscles After Menopause

Women lose bone mass during menopause, so strategies to prevent osteoporosis in this population are of utmost importance. In a study of 103 post-menopausal women (average age 55), researchers analyzed their diet and body composition. Most closely following a Mediterranean diet was linked with better muscle mass and greater spine bone mineral density than those not eating Mediterranean foods like olive oil, fish, and grains. (Note that findings presented at meetings are typically viewed as preliminary until they’ve been published in a peer-reviewed journal.)
Presented at ENDO 2018: The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting. Chicago, Illinois. March 20, 2018.

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Agility and Mobility Problems in Aging

Maintaining healthy physical function is important to help seniors live comfortably and independently as they age. To see if diet relates to physical function, researchers analyzed the eating patterns and physical function of 1,630 seniors (ages 60+) in Spain. Those most closely following a Mediterranean Diet (as measured by MEDAS, the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) were 33% less likely to have problems with agility, 31% less likely to have problems with mobility, and 40% less likely to have decreased overall physical function. Note that when eating patterns were analyzed by MDS (the Mediterranean Diet Score, which is less thorough then MEDAS, as it covers fewer foods and doesn’t have specific cut-off points for each food group), the relationship was only statistically significant for physical functioning.
The Journals of Gerontology. 2018 Mar 2;73(3):333-339. (Struijk EA et al.)

Both Mediterranean and Vegetarian Diets Effective for Weight Loss

From Mediterranean to vegetarian, many of the world’s healthiest diets actually have more similarities than differences, so it’s not surprising to find that both these diets can be an effective path to weight loss. In this study, researchers randomly assigned 118 overweight adults who normally eat meat to either a lower calorie Mediterranean diet or a lower calorie vegetarian diet for 3 months. After a two-week assessment, the participants then switched to the other diet for 3 months. Participants lost about 4 pounds during each diet, and both diets were also effective at decreasing body fat. The only significant difference between the diets was that the vegetarian was slightly more effective in lowering bad (LDL) cholesterol, while the Mediterranean diet was slightly more effective in lowering triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood).
Circulation. 2018 Feb 26. (Sofi F et al.) [Epub ahead of print]

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

Lifestyle habits, like diet, are an important part of a cancer-protective strategy. To see if diet relates to prostate cancer risk, researchers analyzed the eating habits of 754 men with prostate cancer, and 1,277 controls without prostate cancer. Those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were 34% less likely to have an aggressive form of prostate cancer than those not following a Mediterranean diet. A Western diet (filled with fast food, sweets, and red meat) and a prudent diet (filled with low fat dairy, juice, produce, and whole grains) were not found to be linked to prostate cancer risk.
Journal of Urology. 2018 Feb;199(2):430-437. (Castello A et al.)

Mediterranean Diet May Help Improve Odds of a Successful Pregnancy in IVF

IVF, or in vitro fertilization (manually combining eggs and sperm in a lab, before transferring into the woman’s uterus) is a common treatment for couples struggling to have children, but researchers wonder whether diet might also play a role. In a study of 244 (non-obese) women in Greece who had their first in-vitro fertilization treatment, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were significantly more likely to become pregnant and have a live birth than those not following a Mediterranean diet, but these results were only significant in women younger than 35. In fact, in women younger than 35, every 5-point increase in the Mediterranean Diet Score (0-55 scale) was linked with a nearly 3 times greater likelihood of getting pregnant and having a baby with IVF.
Human Reproduction. 2018 Jan 30. (Karayiannis D et al.) [Epub ahead of print]

Mediterranean-Inspired Diet May Slow Cognitive Decline in Stroke Survivors

Stroke survivors are twice as likely to develop dementia compared to the general population. To see how diet relates to brain health in stroke survivors, researchers analyzed the eating patterns and brain function of 106 stroke survivors for more than 4 years. Those most closely following a “MIND diet” had a slower rate of cognitive decline than those who don’t follow a MIND diet. The MIND diet is a hybrid Mediterranean-DASH diet that emphasizes foods associated with brain health, including whole grains, green leafy vegetables, berries, nuts, olive oil, and fish. The Mediterranean diet is well-known for its brain benefits, so it’s not surprising that this new diet inspired by the Mediterranean diet is also showing promise for brain health. 
Presentation at the American Heart Association Meeting. Los Angeles, California. January 25, 2018. 

Mediterranean Diet Related to Life Satisfaction, Physical Function, and Improved Health in Older Adults

The Mediterranean diet is good for our physical health, but new studies show that the Mediterranean diet might also be good for our mental health. To see how the Mediterranean diet relates to quality of life, researchers analyzed the eating patterns and health factors of 351 older Spanish adults (ages 60+). Participants who most closely followed a Mediterranean diet were more physically active and had significantly better health-related quality of life. In both men and women, following a Mediterranean diet was linked with better mental function. Among men, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were more likely to have healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels, as well as improved physical function. Among women, those most closely following a Mediterranean diet were more likely to have better life satisfaction. 
The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. 2018;22(1):89-96. (Zaragoza-Marti A et al.)

Mediterranean Diet May Reduce Dependence on Multiple Meds

Polypharmacy occurs when patients have to take many medications at once, usually more than five daily medications. Because polypharmacy can result in confusion and frustration, low medication adherence, and ultimately increased health risk, especially in elderly populations, lifestyle changes to prevent or reduce polypharmacy are of great interest. To see how the Mediterranean diet relates to polypharmacy and cardiometabolic disorders like obesity and heart disease, researchers analyzed the diet, health conditions, and medications of 476 elderly adults in Rome. Those not following a Mediterranean diet (medium-low adherence) were more likely to need multiple medications, and have high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and diabetes. Looking at individual food components, olive oil, vegetables, fish, legumes, and nuts were all significantly related to a lower risk of polypharmacy. The authors conclude that following a Mediterranean diet “might potentially delay the onset of age-related health deterioration and reduce the need of multiple medications.”
The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. 2018 Jan;22(1):73-81. (Vicinanza R et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with 38% Lower Risk of Frailty

Frailty and associated weakness can put elderly adults at risk of health and safety problems, so lifestyle strategies to help elders age strongly are of utmost importance. To see how following a Mediterranean Diet relates to frailty, researchers analyzed data from 4 studies encompassing 5,789 older adults (ages 60+). Most closely following a Mediterranean diet was linked with a 38% lower risk of frailty than not following a Mediterranean diet.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2018 Jan 11. (Kojima G et al.) [Epub ahead of print.]

Understanding How the Mediterranean Diet May Help Prevent Colon Cancer

The Mediterranean diet’s protective effects against cancers have been extensively studied and documented, and researchers want to learn more about the mechanisms behind this relationship. Chronic inflammation in one’s intestines (such as with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis) can predispose a person to colorectal cancer, so reducing inflammation is important. In this paper, researchers suggest that bioactive components of the Mediterranean diet (such as omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and phenolic compounds) were found to decrease inflammation (as measured by fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and homocysteine). The researchers also suggest that the Mediterranean diet’s low levels of refined sugars may be helpful in preventing colorectal cancer by improving insulin resistance and decreasing circulating levels of IGF-1, a hormone associated with cancer risk. By prioritizing fish over red meat, a Mediterranean diet may also reduce the mutagenic compounds from meat that are linked with a higher colorectal cancer risk. Lastly, compounds and antioxidants in fruits and vegetables (a predominant component to a Mediterranean diet) were studied in their protective capacity against development of colorectal cancer. In short, these results “support the adoption of a [Mediterranean Diet] to decrease risk of [colorectal cancer] irrespective of tumor site.”
Frontiers in nutrition. 2017 Dec;59(4). (Donovan MG et al.)

Mediterranean Diet Linked with Lower Risk of Colorectal Cancer Precursors

The prevalence of colorectal adenomas, cancer precursors in the large intestine, differs by race and ethnicity, with a higher prevalence among black people than among white people. To see how the Mediterranean diet relates to colorectal adenomas across different races, researchers analyzed the eating pattern and colorectal health of 41,973 men. They found that a Mediterranean diet was linked with a lower risk of colorectal adenomas among all races, but interestingly that the diet had a greater protective association among Asian and black participants than for white participants. These findings demonstrate that the use of a Mediterranean diet may be an effective way to reduce prevalence of colorectal adenomas in men, especially among black and Asian men.  
Nutrition Research. 2017, Dec;48:76-84. (Haslam A et al.)

Pages