A study from Oregon Health Services University examined the impact that a transition to a more ‘aﬄuent’ diet had on thirteen Tarahumara Indians (ﬁve women and eight men). Tarahumara Indians are a Mexican people traditionally consuming a low-fat, high-ﬁber diet and with very low incidence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The thirteen subjects were fed their traditional diet (2700 kcal per day) for one week and were then fed a diet typical of aﬄuent societies, which contained excessive calories (4100 kcal per day), total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol for ﬁve weeks. After ﬁve weeks of consuming the aﬄuent diet, the subjects’ mean cholesterol levels increased by 31%, and plasma triglyceride levels also increased by 18%.
New England Journal of Medicine 1991 Dec 12;325(24):1704-8. (McMurry et al.)