The foods we eat and the times at which we eat them can both aﬀect blood sugar management, according to a very small randomized cross-over study carried out in Sweden. Researchers at Linköping University identiﬁed 19 people with type 2 diabetes, then observed their post-consumption response to three diﬀerent breakfast-lunch combinations: low-fat (~50% of energy from carbohydrates), low-carbohydrate (~20% of energy from carbohydrates), and Mediterranean Diet (~33% of energy from carbohydrates). The low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets consisted of breakfast and lunch, whereas the Mediterranean Diet oﬀered only black coﬀee at breakfast and a large lunch with red wine that equaled the number of calories in both the breakfast and lunch of each of the other two diets – an approach followed in many Mediterranean countries. After the Mediterranean lunch, subjects had greater insulin release, which kept glucose levels lower despite the larger meal. Researchers noted that their results are consistent with other research that shows that obese subjects show greater insulin-sensitivity when carbohydrates are concentrated at a single meal, and that most people are more insulin-resistant earlier in the day than at mid-day or in the evening.
PLOS ONE. 2013 Nov 27; 8(11): e79324 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079324 (Fernemark, et al).