Health Studies

Med Diet and Lower Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease

Researchers for the PREDIMED study reviewed data that followed about 7,500 adults aged 55 to 80 who had a high risk of developing heart disease. The people were divided into 3 groups: one was assigned to eat a Mediterranean Diet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil; one was assigned to eat a Mediterranean Diet enriched with nuts; and one was assigned to a control group that received advice on following a low-fat diet. Over five years a total of 89 participants developed peripheral artery disease (PAD), which deposits plaque in the arteries of the legs, restricting blood flow, and can cause pain during walking. Participants in the control group developed PAD at a rate of about 0.5% per year. The Med Diet with nuts group experienced half that rate, and the Med Diet with olive oil group experienced an even lower rate of 0.15% per year. Researchers believe this is the first randomized primary prevention trial to suggest an association between diet and reduced rates of PAD.
JAMA. 2014; 311(4):415-417 [Ruiz-Canela M, Estruch R, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA].

Med Diet May Help Cut Diabetes Risk without Cutting Calories

Researchers reviewed data collected during the PREDIMED study in which more than 3500 patients aged 55 to 80 years with high cardiovascular risk were randomly assigned to eat 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean Diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, Mediterranean Diet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet (patients received advice on a low-fat diet). None of the diets were calorie restricted. Over the course of the study 16% of the participants on a Med Diet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil and 18.7% of those on the Med Diet plus nuts developed type 2 diabetes, compared to 23.6% of the participants on the control diet, leading researchers to conclude that a Mediterranean Diet enriched with olive oil but without calorie restrictions can reduce diabetes risk for people with high cardiovascular risk.
Annals of Internal Medicine. 2014; 160(1):10-10-10. [Salas-Salvadó, et al].

Med Diet May Help Prevent Gestational Diabetes

Researchers assessed the dietary habits of more than 1000 pregnant women in 10 Mediterranean countries to determine their adherence to a Mediterranean Diet. The women were screened for gestational diabetes between their 24th and 32nd weeks of pregnancy. The researchers found that adherence to a Mediterranean Diet is associated with lower incidence of gestational diabetes. They call for further testing of the use of the Mediterranean Diet for the prevention of gestational diabetes.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014; 68:8-13. [Karamanos, et al].

Sofrito Contains Healthy Antioxidants

Different Mediterranean sofritos (sautéed vegetables and spices, usually a combination of tomatoes, garlic, and onions cooked in olive oil) were analyzed for their content of healthy antioxidants. Researchers identified 40 different types of polyphenols, including some never previously reported in Mediterranean sofrito. Polyphenols are associated with low incidence of cardiovascular disease. The sofritos also contained other beneficial compounds such as carotenoids and vitamin C. The amount of the antioxidants differed among sofritos according to the type of vegetables or olive oil used to make them. Researchers also discovered that the health benefits obtained from sofrito are better than the benefits obtained from eating each ingredient separately.

Food Chemistry. 2013 Dec 15; 141(4): 3365-3372 (Vallverdú-Querald, et al.) [EPub ahead of print]

Med Diet Pattern May Help Manage Type 2 Diabetes

The foods we eat and the times at which we eat them can both affect blood sugar management, according to a very small randomized cross-over study carried out in Sweden. Researchers at Linköping University identified 19 people with type 2 diabetes, then observed their post-consumption response to three different breakfast-lunch combinations: low-fat (~50% of energy from carbohydrates), low-carbohydrate (~20% of energy from carbohydrates), and Mediterranean Diet (~33% of energy from carbohydrates). The low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets consisted of breakfast and lunch, whereas the Mediterranean Diet offered only black coffee at breakfast and a large lunch with red wine that equaled the number of calories in both the breakfast and lunch of each of the other two diets – an approach followed in many Mediterranean countries. After the Mediterranean lunch, subjects had greater insulin release, which kept glucose levels lower despite the larger meal. Researchers noted that their results are consistent with other research that shows that obese subjects show greater insulin-sensitivity when carbohydrates are concentrated at a single meal, and that most people are more insulin-resistant earlier in the day than at mid-day or in the evening.
PLOS ONE. 2013 Nov 27; 8(11): e79324 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079324 (Fernemark, et al).

Extra-Virgin Olive Oil & Exercise Prevent Cartilage Degeneration

Since inflammation is one of the factors leading to cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis, Italian researchers explored whether extra-virgin olive oil could help protect joints from the ravages of inflammation. They found that consumption of extra-virgin olive oil, coupled with mild exercise on a treadmill, lowered inflammation markers and can help prevent osteoarthritis and preserve cartilage.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2013 Dec;24(12):2064-75. Musumeci et al.

Nuts Associated with Lower Mortality Rate

Researchers examined the eating patterns of more than 76,000 women and more than 42,000 men over 24 to 30 years to assess the health effects of eating nuts. They discovered that eating nuts is associated with a reduced risk of mortality overall and specifically from cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease. As nut consumption increased (from none at all, to weekly, to daily), the incidences of mortality also decreased. Researchers noted that all types of nuts appear to have the same health benefit and did not see a difference between individual types, including peanuts and tree nuts.

The New England Journal of Medicine. 2013 November 21; 369:2001-2011 (Bao, et al.)

Med Diet Associated with Healthy Aging

A new study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine demonstrates that eating a Mediterranean Diet is associated with greater health and well-being in older age. The study analyzed food frequency questionnaires collected between 1984 and 1986 from 10,670 women in their late 50s and early 60s with no major chronic diseases. Fifteen years later researchers again collected data from the same women and found that those who had adhered to a Mediterranean Diet in middle age were about 40% more likely to live past 70 and to have avoided 11 chronic diseases measured in the study including many cancers, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease. Those who most closely followed a Med Diet also were more likely to age without physical disabilities, signs of cognitive impairment, or mental health problems.
Annals of Internal Medicine. 2013; 159(9): 584-591. (Samieri, et al.)

Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Age-Related Drop in Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Researchers in Quebec measured an anti-inflammatory component of HDL (“good cholesterol”) in ten young adults and ten elderly adults, and found that the older people had less anti-inflammatory activity. After 12 weeks of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) consumption, anti-inflammatory activity increased in both groups and reduced the age-related difference between the two groups.
British Journal of Nutrition. 2013 Oct;110(7):1272:84. Loued et al.

Med Diet with Low Glycemic Load May Reduce Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

Researchers analyzed data from more than 22,000 participants followed over 11 years in the Greek cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to investigate the relationship between the Mediterranean Diet, glycemic load, and occurrence of type 2 diabetes. The researchers found that people who consumed a low glycemic load diet that adheres to the principles of the Mediterranean Diet may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 20%.
Diabetologia. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print.] [Rossi, et al.]
 

Recent Blog Posts

The right place is Oldways and the right stuff is the wide variety of cons...
Today we embark on a new food journey (and monthly series) into the wacky...
Today we say thanks to our friend Ellen Kanner for this fabulous and '...

E-Newsletter Sign-up

Sign up for one or more of our Oldways newsletters. After you enter your email and click Submit you’ll be given a chance to choose which newsletter(s) you want.

Email: